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CHAPTER I
The Burnt Offering
"Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world"--

John i. 29


THE TABERNACLE was that tent whose two apartments,

separated by the veil, formed the Holy Place, and the



Most Holy. This " tabernacle" was God's dwelling-place

on earth; where he met with men,--the token of his

returning to man after the fall. It was here that "the

voice of the Lord God" was often heard, as in Eden, in

the cool of the day.
Ver. 1. And the Lord called unto Moses, and spake unto him out

of the tabernacle of the congregation, saying,--
The cloud that guided Israel* had descended on the

tabernacle; and while this pillar stood over it, the glory

of the Lord filled the Holy of holies within (Exod. xl. 34).

Rays of this glory were streaming out all around, per-

haps like the light that shone from Christ's form "on the

holy mount," through his raiment, till the whole hill

shone. Out of the midst of this "excellent glory" (2

Pet. i. 17) came the voice of the Lord. He called on

Moses as at the bush; and having fixed the undivided
* In Exod. xl. 34-38, we have the general history of this cloud; not the nar-

rative of its motions on a particular occasion.

THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I 11
attention of Moses on him that spake, Jehovah utters his

mind. What love is here! The heart of our God, in

the midst of all his own joy, yearning to pour itself out

to man!


The date of these laws is probably a few days after

the tabernacle had been set up. They are given not from

Sinai, though at its foot (see chap. xxvii. 34); but from

over the mercy-seat, from between the cherubim, where

the glory had so lately found a resting-place. Perhaps

this intimated that all these institutions about to be

given bear on the same great subject, viz. Atonement

and its effects. Sinai and its law a few weeks before,

with the dark apostasy in the matter of the golden calf,

had lately taught them the necessity of reconciliation,

and made their conscience thirst for that living water.

And it is given here. The first clause of this book

declares a reconciled God--"The Lord called to Moses,"

as a man to his friend.


Ver. 2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, If

any man of you bring an offering unto the Lord, ye shall bring

your offering* of the cattle, even of the herd and of the flock.
When the Lord said, "Speak to the children of Israel,"

instead of himself addressing them, it taught the people

their need of a Mediator. It was as if he had said,

These things are addressed to sinners who cannot see my

face or hear my voice, except through a daysman.

The offerings first spoken of are those that are to be

wholly consumed--types of complete exhaustion of wrath.

In these cases, everything about the animal was consumed,

sinews, horns, bones, hoof, the wool on the sheep's head,

and the hair on the goat's beard--(Willet). Hence they


* The Septuagint render this "prosoisete ta dwra u[mw?n."

Hence, perhaps, Heb. viii. 3, "gifts and sacrifices."

12 THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I
were called whole burnt-offerings (o[lokautwmata). God

prescribes the symbols of atonement, even as he fixed on

the ransom itself. It is a sovereign God that sinners are

dealing with; and in so doing, he fixed on the herd and

the flock, as the only class of cattle (hmAheB;), or four-

footed beasts, that he would accept. If we are to inquire

into a reason for this beyond his mere sovereignty, there

are two that readily present themselves as every way

probable. First, oxen, sheep, and goats (the herd and

flock) are easily got by men, being at their hand. He

did not wish to make them go in pursuit of beasts for

offering, for salvation is brought to our hand by our God.

Second, the characteristics of these animals fit them to

be convenient types of various truths relating to sacrifice.

The ox taken from feeding by the river-side, or the sheep

from its quiet pastures,--perhaps from among the lilies

of Sharon,--was an emblem of the Redeemer leaving the

joy and blessedness of his Father's presence, where he

had been ever "by the streams that make glad the city

of God." Another reason has been assigned, viz. all

these were horned animals. Whether in the East such

were reckoned more valuable than other animals we

cannot say. It is, at least, worthy of notice, that the

horn, which is the symbol of power and honour, is found

in them all.
Ver. 3. If his offering be a burnt-sacrifice of the herd, let him

offer a male, without blemish: he shall offer it of his own

voluntary will, at the door of the tabernacle of the congrega-

tion, before the Lord.
“A male," representing the second Adam, "without

blemish." Christ, by his one offering, makes his Church

spotless (Eph. v. 27), and, therefore, he was to be so
* See Guild's Moses Unveiled.

THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I 13


himself. Of course, therefore, the type of him must be

so. In the peace-offerings it was different: for these

typified rather the effects of Christ's atonement on the

receiver than himself atoning; and the animal, in that

case, might have some defect or blemish, even as the

effects of his work may be imperfectly experienced by

the sinner, though the work itself is perfect. But what-

ever speaks of Christ himself must speak of perfection.

"Before the Lord" is an expression ever recurring: it is

remarkable that it should occur so often. But perhaps

it was because the Lord meant thus to insert a Divine

safeguard against the Socinian idea, that sacrifice chiefly

had reference to the offerer, not to God. Every sacrifice

is brought before "the great Inhabitant of the sanctu-

ary." So also this expression guards us against Popish

error, as if ministers of Christ are priests in the same

sense as the line of Aaron. No; ministers of Christ

approach men in behalf of God, who sends them as am-

bassadors, but these priests approached God in behalf

of guilty men. "He shall offer it of his own voluntary

will."* The Gospel warrant is, "Whosoever will, let him

come." There must be a willing soul; none but a soul

made willing in the day of his power pays any regard

to atonement. The Lord allows all that are willing, to

come to the atoning provision. "Are you thirsty for

the living God? for yonder altar's sacrifice?" might some

son of Aaron say to a fearful soul. The fearful con-

science replies, "I cannot well tell if I be really thirsty

for him." "But are you, then, willing to go to yonder

altar?" "Yes, I am." "Then you may come; for
* Some translate this, “He shall offer it in order to be accepted.” I do

not think this meaning can be proved to be the true one, although the Septuagint

generally renders the expression, " dekton e@nanti Ku

here has, "dekton au]t& e]cilasqai e]nanti Kuriou."

14 THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I
read Leviticus i. 3, and see that it is neither riches nor

poverty, moral attainment nor deep experience, but sim-

ply a conscience willing to be bathed in atonement, that

is spoken of by the God of Israel."

Come then with the sacrifice to "the door of the taber-

nacle." The altar was near the door of the tabernacle;

it faced it. It was the first object that met the eye of

a worshipper coming in. The priest met him there, and

led the offerer with his sacrifice on to the altar. The

presenting any sacrifice there was a type of the worship-

per's object being to get admission into the presence of

God by entrance at that door ("access," Eph. ii. 18).

Thus the offerer walked silently and with holy awe to

the door of the tabernacle, and there met his God.

As a type of Christ, it would declare Christ's willing

offering of himself “Lo, I come;" and how he was, in

the fulness of time, led silently as a lamb to the slaugh-

ter. For we are to distinguish between the presentation

of Christ before he went forth, and the presentation of

himself after all was done.


Ver. 4. And he shall put his hand upon the head of the burnt-

offering; and it shall be accepted for him, to make atonement

for him.
This action of the offerer gives us a view of faith.

The offerer puts his hand on the same head whereon the

Lord's hand was laid, and thereby agrees to all that is

implied in his choosing that offering. God and the

believing soul meet at the same point, and are satisfied

by the same display of the Divine attributes.--" He

shall put his hand."* It is yet more forcible in the
* We make no reference, here nor elsewhere, to Jewish traditions as

to the manner in which the thing was done, and the words used. It is strange

that Ainsworth, Patrick, Outran, and others, should waste so much time in this

THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I 15


Hebrew—“He shall lean his hand” (j`msAv;), the very

word used in Psalm lxxxviii. 7, "Thy wrath leaneth

hard upon me." We lean our soul on the same person

on whom Jehovah leant his wrath.

When the worshipper had thus simply left his sins,

conveyed by the laying on of his hand upon the sacrifice,

he stands aside. This is all his part. The treatment of

the victim is the Lord's part. The happy Israelite who

saw this truth might go home, saying, "I have put my

hand on its head; it shall be accepted as an atonement."

Faith in the Lord's testimony was the ground of an

Israelite's peace of conscience,--nothing of it rested on

his own frame of mind, character, or conduct.
Ver. 5. And he shall kill the bullock before the Lord; and

the priests, Aaron's sons, shall bring the blood, and sprinkle

the blood round about upon the altar that is by the door of

the tabernacle of the congregation.
It is interesting to notice here, that Outram, Witsius,

and, others, seem to have proved that, in patriarchal

ages, every man might offer his own sacrifice. Heads of

families, and heads of a tribe or nation, often acted for

those under them; but the idea that the first-born were

the only priests is without foundation. The patriarchal

age was taught that every man must take Christ for

himself personally. In the Mosaic economy, however,

this is altered. There is another truth to be shewn

forth. Any one (2 Chrou. xxx. 17) might kill the ani-

mal--any common Levite, or even the offerer himself

--for there may be many executioners of God's wrath.

Earth and hell were used in executing the Father's pur-
department. Are these traditions anything more than human fancy--often, too,

of a somewhat modern date? Augustine judged well when he said, “Quid scrip-



tura voluerit, non quod illi opinati fuerint, inquirendum."

16 THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I


pose toward the Prince of Life. But there is only one

appointed way for dispensing mercy; and therefore only

priests must engage in the act that signified the bestowal

of pardon.

The animal is "killed" in the presence of the Lord.

And now, what an awfully solemn sight! The priest

“brings forward the blood." As he bears it onward, in

one of the bowls of the altar, all gaze upon the warm

crimson blood! It is the life! So that when the blood

is thus brought forward, the life of the sacrifice is brought

before God! It is as if the living soul of the sinner

were carried, in its utter helplessness and in all its filthi-

ness, and laid down before the Holy One!

The blood was then "sprinkled round about upon the

altar." The life being taken away, the sinner's naked

soul is exhibited! He deserves this stroke of death-

death death in the Lord's presence, as a satisfaction to his holi-

ness! As the blood that covered the door on the night

of the Passover represented the inmates' life as already

taken, so the blood on the altar and its sides signified

that the offerer's life was forfeited and taken. It was

thus that Jesus "poured out his soul unto death" for us.

It was, further, "round about," as well as "upon," the

altar. This held it up on all sides to view; and the

voice from the altar now is, "Look unto me, and be ye

saved, all the ends of the earth." All within the camp

might look and live; for this sacrifice represents Christ's

dying as the only way for any, and the sufficient way for all.

The altar mentioned here was the "altar of brass;"

not the "golden altar," which stood in the Holy Place.*


Ver. 6. And he shall flay the burnt-offering, and cut it into his

pieces.
* See some remarks on the brass of this altar in a note, chap. xiv. 5.

THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I 17


Here, again, any one might act, as well as the priest;

for any of God's creatures may be the executioners of his

wrath. “He shall flay."--The skin torn from off the

slain animal may intimate the complete exposure of the

victim, uncovered, and laid open to the piercing eye of

the beholder. But specially, it seems to skew that there

is no covering of inherent righteousness on the person of

the sinner. While the skin was unwounded, the inward

parts were safe from the knife; thus, so long as man had

personal righteousness interposing, no knife could pierce

his soul. But the taking away of the victim's skin

skewed that the sinner had no such protection in God's

view; even as the bringing of such skins to Adam and

Eve, after the fall, skewed that God saw them destitute

of every covering, and had, in his mercy, provided cloth-

ing for them by means of sacrifice.

The "cutting it into pieces" would at last leave the

sacrifice a mangled mass of flesh and bones. Entire dis-

location of every joint, and separation of every limb and

member, was the process. By this the excruciating tor-

ment due to the sinner seems signified. God's sword--

his Abraham's knife--spares not the sacrifice; but uses

its sharpness and strength to pierce and destroy to the

uttermost. The slashing sword of wrath leaves nothing

to the guilty; but, as "one woe is past, behold, another

woe cometh quickly." Yet it is "into his pieces."

There was an order observed--a regularity and deliber-

ate systematic procedure. So will it be in the damna-

tion of hell; every pang will be weighed by perfect holi-

ness, every stroke deliberated upon ere it is inflicted.

And, in truth, this deliberate infliction is the most awful

feature of justice. It leaves the sufferer hopeless. The

stroke is awfully relentless, determined, righteous! Such,

18 THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I


too, were the Saviour's sufferings. Every part and pore

of his frame was thus mangled; every member of his

body, every feeling of his soul. There was not an action

of his life, or desire in his heart, but was combined with

woe; and all so just, that from the cross he lifts his

eyes to his Father, and looking on him--as he had ever

done, cries, "But thou art holy!" (Ps. xxii. 3.)
Ver. 7. And the sons* of Aaron the priest shall put fire upon

the altar, and lay the wood in order upon the fire.
This verse is well illustrated by Heb. ix. 14, "Who,

through the eternal Spirit, offered himself without spot

to God." Christ was prepared, in his human nature, by

the Holy Spirit. The Father prepared the fire of wrath,

filled the vial with that wrath, and, then poured it out.

The Holy Spirit, as Heb. ix. 14 declares, set all things in

order, in Christ's human nature, ready for the vial being

poured out. At the moment when the fire came down

and consumed him, love to God and man was at its

highest pitch in his soul--obedience, holy regard for the

Divine law, hatred of sin, love to man.

The wood, taken by itself, is not a type of anything;

but it must be taken thus:--the laying the wood in

order preparatory to the fire coming. In this view it

represents what we have just said.

The fire was from that fire which descended from the

cloudy pillar. It was, therefore, divinely intended to

shew "the wrath of God revealed from heaven" against

all ungodliness of men. Indeed, the fire from the bosom

of that cloud was no less than a type of wrath from the


* We sometimes see mistakes committed in representations of tabernacle

scenes. Levites are made to act as priests, and Levites are exhibited blowing

the silver trumpets. But all this was the duty of Aaron's sons alone. True;

they were Levites, but they were the priestly family among the Levites. Priests

are Levites, but all Levites are not priests.

THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP, I 19


bosom of God against him who lay in his bosom (see

chap. vi. 9, and ix. 24).


Ver. 8. And the priests, Aaron's sons, shall lay the parts, the

head, and the fat, in order upon the wood that is on the fire

which is upon the altar.
The fat did, of course, help the flame to consume the

head, notwithstanding the gushing stream of blood. But

what is the type? The head was that whereon the

offerer leant his hand, conveying to it his load of guilt.

The fat (rd,PA) is a word that occurs only, thrice, viz.

here, and ver. 12, and chap. viii. 20. Some understand

it to be the midriff; others, the fat separated from the

rest of the flesh; but there is no way of arriving at the

certain import. The type, however, is obvious. The

head and this fat are two pieces--one outward, the other

inward; thus representing the whole inner and outer

man. Christ's whole manhood, body and soul, was

placed on the altar, in the fire, and endured the wrath of

God. There could be no type of his soul otherwise than

by selecting some inward part to signify it; and that is

done here by the "fat." It is on the fat, too, that the

fire specially kindles. It is at the man's heart, feelings,

and desires that God expresses his indignation most fully.

It is the heart that is desperately wicked. It is the

carnal mind that is enmity against God.


Ver. 9. But his inwards and his legs shall he wash in water:

and the priest shall burn all on the altar, to be a burnt-

sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the

Lord.
Answerable to the "head and fat" of the former
* The North American Indians long practised sacrifice; and D. Brainerd, in

his Journal, tells us of a great sacrifice where “they burnt the fat of the inwards

in the fire, and sometimes raised the flame to a prodigious height.”

20 THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I


verse, as parts representing the inward and outward, we

have here the legs and the intestines. The legs and in-

testines may be supposed to be selected to mark outward

and inward defilement--man's polluted nature needing

to be washed in water. But why wash these in water, if

they are to be burnt? Because here is a sacrifice for

others--"the just for the unjust"--Christ taking our

place. Now, lest anything should seem to indicate per-

sonal defilement in him, these portions are washed in

water, and then presented. Christ's body and soul, all

his person, and all his acts, were holy. His walk was

holy, and his inmost affections holy.

Such was the sacrifice on which the fire came! See

Isaac on the wood! but the knife has pierced this Isaac!

--in symbol, the original and immutable sentence, "Thou

shalt die." Here is death; and it has come in such a

manner as not to leave a vestige of the victim's former

aspect. The victim is all disfigured, and has become a

mass of disjointed bones and mangled flesh, because thus

shall it be in the case of the lost in hell. The lost sinner's

former joy, and even all his relics of comfort, are gone

for ever--no lover or friend would ever be able to re-

cognise that lost one. Even as it was with Jesus when

he took the position of the lost; his visage seemed to

every eye more marred than any man, and his form more

than the sons of men. But lo! as if even all this were

not expressive enough, that mangled mass is committed

to the flames, and in the consuming flame, every remain-

ing mark of its former state disappears. All is ashes.

So complete is the doom of the lost--as testified on this

altar, and fulfilled by Jesus when he took the sinner's

place. That smoke attests that God's righteousness is

fully satisfied in the suffering victim. His blood--his
THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I 21
soul--is poured out! and the flame of Divine wrath burns

up the suffering one! The smoke ascends--"a sweet

savour to the Lord." He points to it, and shews therein

his holy name honoured, and his law magnified. It is

sweet to Jehovah to behold this sight in a fallen world.

It reminds him, so to speak, of that Sabbath-rest over

the first creation (Gen. ii. 2); only this is deeper rest, as

being rest after trouble. This "sweet savour" is literally

"savour of rest" (HaOHyni Hayri); as if the savour stayed his

wrath and calmed his soul. So Eph. v. 2. And at the

view of that ascending smoke, more joyful hallelujahs are

sung than will be heard over the smoke of the pit (Rev.

xix. 3). For here love has free scope as well as righteous-

ness. What a rest will the millennial and heavenly rest

be, when, in addition to other elements, it has in it this

element of perfect satisfaction--" He shall, rest in his

love!" (Zeph. iii. 17.)

Such, then, is the "ox and bullock that has horns and

hoofs" (Ps. lxix. 31) ; and such, too, the meaning of the

offering. The Antitype set forth in Psalm lxix. has mag-

nified the name of the Lord, and set aside the type.
Ver. 10. And if his offering be of the flocks, namely, of the sheep,

or of the goats, for a burnt-sacrifice; he shall bring it a male

without blemish.
It appears that wealthier men generally selected oxen

as their offering;* and men less able took sheep or goats;

while ver. 14 shews that those yet poorer brought doves.

God thus left the sacrifice open alike to the rich, the

middle classes, and the labouring poor. For in Jesus

Christ there is neither Greek nor Jew, barbarian nor

Scythian, bond nor free; he is within reach of all alike.
* That is, oxen were always part of their sacrifice. Thus Numb.

vii. and I Chron. xxix. 21.

22 THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I
Our High Priest welcomes sinners under the wide name,

“Him that cometh " (John vi. 3 7); the advancing foot-

steps of a sinner to his altar, whether he be great or small,

is a sweet sound in our Aaron's ear.

Here is specially included the offering of the lamb.

Morning and evening this was done by the priest for all

Israel. "He was led as a lamb to the slaughter"* (Isa.

liii. 7). Every day that picture was exhibited to Israel.


Ver. 11. And he shall kill it on the side of the altar northward

before the Lord: and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall sprinkle

his blood round about upon the altar.
There is a peculiarity here which does not occur in the

sacrifices of the herd, namely, it is to be killed on the

north side of the altar. One obvious reason seems to be

this: there was a necessity, for the sake of order, that

there should be a separate place for killing the oxen and

the sheep. No quarter of the heavens was sacred; and

since, at other times, the sacrifice was presented on the

east side, a variety like this answered the purpose of

proclaiming that Jesus is offered to any soul in any na-

tion, east or north, i.e. from east to west, north to south,

his death is presented to the view of all, to be believed

by men as soon as they see it. "Look unto me, and be

ye saved, all the ends of the earth."†
Ver. 12, 13. And he shall cut it into his pieces, with his head and

his fat; and the priest shall lay them in order on the wood
* An old writer asks, why Christ is called so often "the Lamb of God,"

and not "the ox, or the ram, of God." The reply is, because these were not

offered “every day," whereas the lamb was a daily offering, and therefore fitted

to proclaim Christ's blood as always ready for use.

† Some have tried without success to discover a deeper meaning in the

“north," And have suggested that the omission of it in Ps. lxxv. 6 strengthens this

idea. But in that passage "south" also is omitted, the Hebrew being rbad;mi.mi,,

"from the desert," referring to the caravans, which, amid all their rare

commodities, never brought the gift spoken of.

THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I 23


that is on the fire which is upon the altar. But he shall wash

the inwards and the legs with water; and the priest shall bring

it all, and burn it upon the altar: it is a burnt-sacrifice, an

offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord.
The sheep or goat is not commanded to be "flayed,"

as ver. 6 commands as to the ox or bullock; perhaps

because flaying signified the defencelessness of the victim

left without a covering. Now, the sheep or goat is, by its

very nature, defenceless enough. Our attention, therefore,

in this type, is rather fixed on the complete stroke of the

knife, that separates all into its pieces ready for the fire.

When the Lord said, "Awake, 0 sword, against my

Shepherd" (Zech. xiii. 7), the Saviour was smitten to

the very soul, and wrath came down on him like fire.

In ver. 13, the words, "and shall bring it all near,"

intimate the solemn care with which the priest advanced

to the spot and lighted the wood, attending to every

point, although his offering was one of the flock, and not

of the herd. This clause seems intended to put equal

honour on the offering of the flock as on that of the

herd, for the Antitype is all that gives either of them

any importance.

The other particulars are the same as those mentioned

in verses 7- 9.

How simple the rules laid down for ordering his

favourite type--the lamb! But let us not fail to notice

that the use made of the lamb is what we are chiefly

called to observe--not the lamb itself in particular; as if

to shew that it is not Christ's meek nature, but Christ,

the meek and lowly one, in his connexion with the altar,

that we ought to be reminded of by the name "Lamb."

If it had been his character only, or chiefly, that was

referred to in that name--"Lamb of God," there would

24 THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I


have been no propriety in typifying him by the "ox"

and the "goat." But if the manner of his death and

the intention of his sufferings were mainly referred to,

then all is appropriate.


BURNT-OFFERING OF FOWLS.
Ver. 14. And if the burnt-sacrifice for his offering to the Lord

be of fowls, then shall he bring his offering of turtle-doves, or

of young pigeons.
In John ii. 14, we find this third class of offerings

referred to, along with the other two,--oxen, sheep, and

doves.

From chap. v. 7, we learn that the poorer class were



to bring this sort of sacrifice. "To the poor the Gospel

is preached;" and ministers must be as solicitous for the

salvation of the poor as of the rich.

The dove or pigeon was to be a male; for the Hebrew

word for "young pigeons" is hnAOy yneB;, "sons of the

dove." Thus it was fitter to represent Christ. And of

the winged tribes, none were ever taken for sacrifice,

except the dove and the turtle-dove. These abounded,

in the Holy Land, so that the poorest could get them

easily.* They were fitted, also, to be emblems of Jesus,

just as was the lamb. He is undefiled and holy, full of

love and tenderness; therefore the dove is his type. And

as the dove at the Deluge brought the message of peace,

and as the turtle-dove is the known emblem of peace,

because its voice is heard from the olive-tree (itself the
* In the course of my ordinary visits in the country; I one day sat down to

converse with a poor illiterate believer, at whose board a beautiful tame pigeon

used to feed. I opened the Bible at this passage, and chewed this type of a suf-

fering Saviour. It seemed to be specially blessed--she long remembered this

type of Jesus: and in this simple incident, there seemed to me discernible some-

thing of the wisdom and goodness that so provided for the poor of Israel.

THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I 25
type of peace), in quiet, calm security, so, on this ground

more specially, they are the better types of Jesus. The

previous suffering of the offered dove, or turtle, repre-

sents Christ suffering ere he enters into peace, and

becomes the peace-maker. Taken from his Father's

bosom, he comes to suffer. The dove, "by the rivers of

water" (Song v. 12), in peace and joy, is caught, and

wrung to death on the altar. The olive-groves must be

searched, and the turtle-dove taken from its own happy,

peaceful olive-tree. It is then violently brought to the

altar, and left lifeless there! Thus it was with Jesus.

But from this suffering and death of the Peaceful One

results "peace on earth." "He is our peace" (Eph. ii.

14). He breathes out on us nothing less than his own

peace--"My peace I give unto you" (John xiv. 27).

And soon, too, as the grand and wide result of all, "the

voice of the turtle (the herald of spring and of storms

past) shall be heard in our land" (Song ii. 12); and the

deluge of fire being passed, this dove shall bring its

olive-branch to announce to the new earth that wrath is

for ever turned away. Christ, who died to make peace,

shall reign in peace, over a peaceful earth, which his

own blood has made the dwelling of righteousness.

He of whom these things are spoken, when on earth,

shewed, from such Scriptures as these, that he needed

to suffer unto death. "Thus it is written, and thus it

behoved Christ to suffer" (Luke xxiv. 46), said Jesus,

while shewing the things written in the law of Moses

concerning himself.
Ver. 15. And the priest shall bring it unto the altar, and wring

of his head, and burn it on the altar; and the blood thereof

shall be wrung out at the side of the altar.
The method of putting the dove to death must be

26 THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I


regulated by the nature of the victim; hence, here it is

by "wringing off his head." But this arrangement is

the better fitted to exhibit another. Feature in the death

of Jesus, viz. the awful violence done to one so pure, so

tender, and so lovely. We shrink back from the terrible

harshness of the act, whether it be plunging the knife

into the neck of the innocent lamb, or wringing off the

head of the tender dove. But, on this very account, the

circumstances are the better figure of the death of Jesus.

“He had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his

mouth; yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him."

After this, "the blood was to be wrung out"

squeezed or pressed out) over the side of the altar, till it

ran in a crimson stream down the altar's side, in view of

all. Then it collects at the foot of the altar; and there

is a cry, like that from the souls under the altar in Rev.

vi. 9, against the cause of this blood-shedding, viz. sin.

A testimony against sin ascends up into the ears of the

Lord of Sabaoth. But his blood speaketh better things

than the blood of Abel, or the cry of the martyred ones;

for the response to this cry of blood is not vengeance,

but pardon to man.

It was the priest who performed this apparently harsh

and cruel act, for the Father bruised Jesus, and the

priest acts in his name.
Ver. 16. And he shall pluck away his crop with his feathers,

and cast it beside the altar, on the east part, by the place of

the ashes.
The crop, containing the food, seems to be considered

unclean, because an emblem of man's appetites. Now, as

there was nothing of man's sinful appetites in the Holy

One, there must be nothing even in the type, that might

lead us to suppose that he was otherwise than perfectly

THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I 27


holy. Hence "the crop" is removed. "The feathers,"

also, are removed, because they are a covering to the

dove; and it must be left quite unsheltered when the

drops of the storm fall thick and heavy upon it. These

are to be cast to "the place of ashes," out of sight of

God; and thus the dove is offered, in a state of purity

and of unprotectedness, on the altar.
Ver. 17. And he shall cleave it with the wings thereof, but shall

not divide it asunder: and the priest shall burn it upon the

altar, upon the wood that is upon the fire: it is a burnt-

sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the

Lord.
“The cleaving” (fS.awi) implies such a separation as is

not complete. It is only dislocation, but not disruption

of the parts, as is also explained in the clause, "but shall

not divide it asunder." In this we see another typical

circumstance. It is like that in the case of the paschal

lamb--"A bone of him shall not be broken." At the

same time, this type gives us, in addition, a reference to

the Saviour's racked frame on the cross, when he said,

"All my bones are out of joint" (Ps. xxii. 14). All this

seems intended to declare that Jesus in his death, was

whole, though broken,--"sin for us," but "no sin in him."

"With the wings thereof," to shew nothing left what-

soever that could be means of escape--total weakness.

Jesus said, as he suffered, "I am poured out like water"

(Ps. xxii. 14).

And this sacrifice is "of a sweet savour to the Lord."

It satisfies the Father well--so much so, that we find his

redeemed ones called by the name that refers us back to

the sacrifice. For example--the Church is called "the

dove" (Song ii. 14). So--"Deliver not the soul of thy

turtle-dove into the hands of the enemy" (Ps. lxxiv. 19).

28 THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I


Just as both Christ and his Church are called "the lily,"

in Song ii. 1, 2 ; and both his voice and theirs is " like

the voice of many waters" in the book of Revelation

(comp. Rev. i. 15; xiv. 2 ; xix. 6). If the Church says,

Behold, thou art fair, my beloved (ydiOd), yea, pleasant

(Song i. 16), it is in response to Christ, who had said,

Behold, thou art fair, my love (ytiyAf;ra); behold, thou art

fair." So truly one is Christ and Ms people, they are in

a manner identified! "Lord, thou art my righteousness,

and I am thy sin; thou hast taken from me what was

mine, and given me what was thine." “ ]W th?j glukei

a]ntallagh?j! w@ th?j a]necixniastou dhmiourgiaj! w@ tw?n a]pros-

dokhEpist. ad Diognet. 9.) "Oh, sweet

exchange ! Oh, unsearchable device! Oh, benefits be-

yond all expectation!"
And now, looking back on this chapter, let us briefly

notice that the rudimental sketch of these offerings, and

the mode of their presentation, will be found at the gate

of Eden. Some have sought for their origin* in Egyptian

ceremonies, at one time imitated, at another purposely

opposed. But this is altogether erroneous.

Davison refuses to admit that sacrifice in the patriarchal

time was identical in meaning with sacrifice in the Mosaic

dispensation--admitting that, if that identity could be

made out, the Divine origin of sacrifice would be proved.†

Now, is there one text in all the Bible to shew that

sacrifice (which Davison gladly admits had in it the

atoning principle in the institutions of Moses) ever has

more than one meaning? As well might we ask evidence

to prove that "to call on the name of the Lord" in the
* Vide Spencer, &c.

† On The Origin and Intention of Primitive Sacrifice.

THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I 29
days of Enos was quite a different act from "calling on

the name of the Lord" in the days of the Psalmist; or

that "righteousness" in Abraham's day (Gen. xv. 6) was

different from "righteousness" in Paul's days (Rom.

iv. 3). Just as we believe the Hiddekel and Euphrates of

Genesis ii. are the same as the Hiddekel and Euphrates of

later history; and the cherubim of Genesis iii. the same

as those in the tabernacle; and the "sweet savour" of

Genesis viii. 21 the same as that in Leviticus i. 9 and

Ephesians v. 2; so do we regard the intention of sacrifice

as always the same throughout Scripture. There would

therefore be need, not of proof to establish this principle,

but of argument to refute it. Ours is the obvious and

common-sense principle. All these ordinances were parts

of the one telescope, through which men saw the Star of

Bethlehem from afar. In Mosaic rites, the telescope was

drawn out farther than at Eden, and the focus at which

the grand object could be, best seen was more nearly

found. But the gate of Eden presents us with the same

truths in a more rudimental form.

Some have traced the outlines of the Mosaic ritual at

the gate of Eden in the following manner:--Within the

gate stood the cherubim, occupying the hallowed spot

where the Tree of Life waved its branches. This resem-

bled the Holy of holies; and the veil that prevented the

approach of any from without was the flaming sword,

flashing its sheets of fire on every side. But opposite to

this sword, at some distance, we see an altar, where our

first parents shed the blood of sacrifice--shewing in type

how the barred-up way of access to the Tree of Life was

to be opened by the blood of the woman's bruised seed.

On this altar bloody and unbloody offerings were ap-

pointed to be presented in their season. And when we

30 THE BURNT-OFFERING CHAP. I


find clean and unclean noticed (Gen. viii. 20), and in

Abraham's case (Gen. xv. 9, 10), the heifer and goat,

the turtle and the pigeon, and also "commandments,

statutes, and laws" (parallel to Lev. xxvi. 46), we cannot

but believe that these fuller institutions in Leviticus are

just the expansion of what Adam first received. The

Levitical dispensation is the acorn of Eden grown to a

full oak. If so, then may we say, that the child Jesus,

wrapped in his swaddling-clothes, was, in these ceremonies,

laid down at the gate of Eden!



CHAPTER II
THE MEAT-OFFERING

I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye



present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God."--

Rom. xii. 1

"The things which were sent from you, an odour of a sweet smell, a

sacrifce acceptable, well pleasing to God."--Phil. iv. 18
Ver. 1. And when any will offer a meat-offering unto the Lord,

his offering shall be of fine flour; and he shall pour oil upon

it, and put frankincense thereon.
IN Daniel ix. 27, "He shall cause the sacrifice and

oblation to cease," there seems to be reference made to

the two great divisions, sacrifices with, and sacrifices

without, blood. For the words are more exactly, “He

shall cause sacrifice and meat-offering (hHAn;mi) to cease."

So also in I Sam. iii. 14, and Ps. xl. 6. We have now

come to this second class of offerings.

The meat-offering (so called by our translators because

the greater part of it was used for food) represents the

offerer's person and property, his body and his posses-

sions.* When he had by the burnt-offering; obtained full
* Ainsworth gives in substance the same meaning of the type, when he says

that it signified "the sanctification of persons and actions, and the acceptation

of them." Patrick is evidently far wrong when he speaks of these meat-offerings

as a merciful provision for those who could not afford to offer animal sacrifices.

32 THE MEAT-OFFERING CHAP. II
acceptance for his soul, he comes next to give up his

whole substance to the Lord who has redeemed him.

The mercies of God constrain him to give up all he has

to the Lord. The meat-offering was generally, or rather

always, presented along with some animal sacrifice, in

order to shew the connexion between pardon of sin and

devotion to the Lord. The moment we are pardoned, all

we are, and all we have, becomes the property of Christ.

“Ye are not your own, for ye are bought with a price"

(1 Cor. vi. 19). Our Redeemer and kinsman buys first

Ruth, the Moabitess herself, and nest, he claims also the

field and inheritance. Joseph, who saves our life, buys

up our bodies and our substance.

A type that was to represent this dedication of body

and property behoved to be one that had no blood

therein; for blood is the life or soul, which has been

already offered.

This distinction may have existed as early as the days

of Adam. When God instituted animal sacrifice to

represent the atonement by death, he probably also in-

stituted this other sort; the fact of this latter existing,

and its meaning and use being definitely understood,

would tend to confirm the exclusive use of animal sacrifice

when atonement was to be shewn forth. Cain's offering

of first fruits might have been acceptable as a meat-

offering, if it had been founded upon the slain lamb, and

had followed as a consequence from that sacrifice.* But

the statement in Heb. xi. 4 lets us know that Cain had

not faith in the seed of the woman; therefore his offering
* In this view Ambrose (De Incarnat. Dom. Sacram., cap. i.) is not wrong:--

“Nihil invenio quod in specie munerum reprehendam, nisi quod et Cain munera

sua displicuisse cognovit, et Dominus dixit, Si recte offeras, recte autem non

dividas, peccasti. Ubi igitur est crimen? Ubi culpa? Non in oblatione muneris,

sed in oblationis affectu."

THE MEAT-OFFERING CHAP. II 33


was hateful to God. Cain's attempt was virtually this,--

to present himself and his property to God, as if they had

been under no curse that needed blood first of all to wash

them. He sought to be accepted by his holiness, and so

overthrew salvation by Christ. Acts of clarity, substi-

tuted for Christ's work, as a means of pacifying the con-

science, make up precisely this sin of Cain. Nor are

they less mistaken who think, by self-denial, and by doing

good to others in their life and conduct, to obtain favour,

and be accepted with God. This is offering the meat-

offering ere the man has been cleansed by the burnt-

offering. It is putting sanctification before justification.*

And there is a tendency to this error in those books

which recommend anxious souls, that are not yet come to

Christ, to draw up a form of self-dedication, and solemnly

give themselves to the Lord. These counsellors are in

danger of leading souls past the blood of the Lamb,

and of putting the meat-offering too hastily into their

hands.

This meat-offering was presented daily, along with the



morning and evening sacrifice, teaching us to give all we

have to the Lord's use, not by irregular impulse on parti-

cular exigencies, but daily.

In Isaiah lxvi. 20, the words, "They shall bring all

your brethren an offering (hHAn;mi) to the Lord," are very

appropriate when we keep in mind that this is the


* An instance of such-like self-righteousness we find among the early

Fathers. Ephraim Syrus seems never to have found the blood-sprinkled way,

but to have travelled onward to eternity over a road strewn with the palm-branches

of good feelings and deeds of self-denial, and watered with tears at every step. His

wretched scheme of peace may be gathered from such congratulations as these

--Makari

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