1wb form 1083 (6- hourly synoptic observations) revised January 1, 1949




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1WB Form 1083 (6- hourly synoptic observations) revised January 1, 1949

WB Form 610-7 (Revised 1-1-1955) (Formerly WB Form 610.6-1)

WB Form 610.6-1 (Revised 1-1-1955) (Formerly WB Form 1083)

Position Contents Instructions


1 Form type Set indicator to form type

1 = 1083


2 = 610-7

3 = 610.6-1


2 , Comma delimited
3 - 30 Station Name Left justify, blank fill;

For lightships pull name off official name list provided by NCDC, if unsure of match then key as it appears on form.


31 , Comma delimited
32-36 WBAN Number Provided by NCDC as part of the official name list for lightships. If no match then use a negative number

unique for the lightship (e.g. -1234). This will allow us to identify and correct later. We do not expect this to be a problem as all lightships will be identified for keying.


37 , Comma delimited
38 - 41 Year e.g. 1947
42 , Comma delimited
43- 44 Month Month = 01-12
45 , Comma delimited
46-47 Day With the introduction of the 1/1/1949 revision to the 1083 forms, the dates are supposed to be the Greenwich date and the times entered on the form (actual observation time) are supposed to be in local standard time. The scheduled times are preprinted in both Greenwich and LST. Occasionally, the observer made non-standard entries, e.g. more than one date (May 22-23). In these cases enter the first day in positions 46-47. Right justify zero fill. When more than one day entered in the “Date (GCT)” field on the form then set the indicator in position 49 to reflect the number of days, e.g. if May 22-23 then set indicator = 2.
48 , Comma delimited
49 Day Indicator 1 = only one day indicated (Jan 6)

2 = two days indicated (May 22-23)

3 = three days indicated (Feb 3-5), this would likely indicate an error.

4 = 4 days, etc.


50 , Comma delimited
51- 54 Observational Time If a time is entered in the field “Observation began (LST)” then this is the time to be entered in the positions 51-54, and set the correct time indicator in position 56 (= 1). If no time is entered in this space on the form, enter the preprinted local scheduled time from the form. Again set the correct indicator in position 56 (= 2). Occasionally they may enter the time in Greenwich, e.g. 1730Z; set indicator in position 56 (= 3). If time entry is entered in “Observation began (LST)” field but not followed by any letter, e.g. no “E”, “C”, etc., then set indicator in position 56 = 4.
55 , Comma delimited
56 Time Indicator 1 = LST (time followed by a letter, e.g. 1840E, E representing Eastern Standard time, C = Central, M = Mountain, P = Pacific & LST or L = local standard time)
2 = no time entered, scheduled LST keyed as the observed time
3 = time entered is Greenwich Mean Time, often abbreviated as GCT, GMT or Z
4 = time entered in LST field, but no letter designator following the time, e.g. entry = 1840


  • Station Identification Do not key this parameter.

57 , Comma delimited


58 - 61 Td Td (Dew point temperature) Dew point temperature on the 1083

(Entry location varies according form may appear as observed or as

to form type) coded, or both. If both present, key only the observed value. The dew point temperature on the 1083 form is located in the order as staged here in the keying format. However, on the 610-7 and 610.6-1 forms the dew point temperature appears just prior to the app group where the Dc (direction of clouds) appears on the 1083 forms. Other than dropping the Dc and repositioning dew point, the order of all other elements remains the same for all three form types. The dew point from the 610 forms will have to be placed out of order in the output format from where it appears on the forms.
Keying rules are as follows: Position

58 is the sign field: blank if positive,

dash (-) if negative, 1 if coded value

keyed. whole oF, positions 59-60

(right justify, zero fill), position 61

reserved for tenths of degrees

Fahrenheit; e.g. if

Td Td (observed) = 6 then:

Position 58 = blank

Position 59 = 0

Position 60 = 6

Position 61 = blank

If Td Td = 97 (coded value only) then

Position 58 = 1

Position 59 = 9

Position 60 = 7

Position 61 = blank

62 , Comma delimited

63-64 N (total cloud amount) N - The fraction of the celestial dome covered by cloud. The observed entry is in tenths while the coded entry is in eighths. Key the observed if available; otherwise, key the coded value. If observed (0-10), right justify & zero fill; if coded value (0-9,/) right justify & blank fill. Often not reported by lightships; blank fill when not reported.
65 , Comma delimited
66-69 dd Wind direction Key coded wind direction, left

(36 and 32 pt) justify, blank fill. When encountering numeric field the observers entered a two digit (00-36) or three digit field (000-360). Key observed wind direction (alpha code) only when the coded value (00-36)/(000-360) is not available. For alpha code key calm as C, otherwise as entered; left justify blank fill. For example, if entry = 04 then:

Position 66 = 0

Position 67 = 4

Position 68 = blank

Position 69 = blank

If 270 reported then:

Position 66 = 2

Position 67 = 7 Position 68 = 0

Position 69 = blank

If Calm reported then :

Position 66 = C

Position 67 = blank

Position 68 = blank

Position 69 = blank

If SW reported then:

Position 66 = S

Position 67 = W

Position 68 = blank

Position 69 = blank

If NEXE reported then:

Position 66 = N

Position 67 = E

Position 68 = X

Position 69 = E
70 , Comma delimited
71 Wind Speed Indicator 1 = Speed is measured in miles per hour.

2 = Speed is measured in knots.

3 = Speed is measured using Beaufort scale.

If no units indicated leave field blank.


72 , Comma delimited

73-75 ff (Wind Velocity) The wind velocity as reported in the

(Observed) observed column. Separate wind velocity fields are established in the output format so the keyers must insure the values as entered are placed on the observational form. Right justify blank fill.
76 , Comma delimited
77-79 ff (Wind Velocity) The wind velocity as reported in the

(Coded) Coded column. Both the observed and coded values are keyed to assist in determining the wind speed units.

Wind velocity code table listed below.
80 , Comma delimited
81 Units indicator 1= no indication as to units, e.g.

for observed visibility 1 ½ or 1/4

2 = statute miles and fractions, e.g. 1 1/2 miles or 1/4M.

3 = yards

4 = WMO code (00-50 & 56-99)

Add additional codes as required

5 = feet
82 , Comma delimited
83-86 VV (visibility as observed) The observed visibility is supposed to be reported in statute miles and fractions. However the observer did not always follow the rules. Some visibility entries may be nautical miles. If the observed visibility column has a value entered key it over the coded value since the resolution is generally higher. Positions 83 (tens position) & 84 are reserved for whole units and positions 85 & 86 for fractions of a unit.

If entry = 5 ½ miles then set position 81 = 1

Position 83 = blank

Position 84 = 5

Position 85 = 1

Position 86 = 2

If entry = 10 miles, then,

Position 81 = 2

Position 83 = 1

Position 84 = 0

Position 85 = blank

Position 86 = blank

If entry = 5 miles, then,

Position 81 = 2

Position 83 = blank

Position 84 = 5

Position 85 = blank

Position 86 = blank

If entry = 50 yards

Position 81 = 3

Position 83 = blank

Position 84 = blank

Position 85 = 5

Position 86 = 0

Occasionally the observers entered

alpha characters. Right justify and

blank fill. If entry = Unlimited.

Position 83 = blank

Position 84 = U

Position 85 = N

Position 86 = L
87 , Comma delimited
88 Units indicator for 1= no indication as to units, e.g.

coded visibility 1 ½ or 1/4

2 = statute miles and fractions, e.g. 1 1/2 miles or 1/4M.

3 = yards

4 = WMO code (00-50 & 56-99)

5 = nautical miles and fractions, e.g.

1 ½ NM or ¼ NM

Add additional codes as required


Note: the coded visibility shall only be keyed if the observed visibility entry is not reported (keyed in positions 81-86).
89 , Comma delimited

90-93 VV (Coded Visibility) Key only if the observed visibility is not available (no entry in the observed visibility column). When it is required to be keyed (no observed visibility) follow the same rules as for keying the observed visibility (positions 81-86).


94 , Comma delimited


95 Present Weather Indicator 0 = WMO two digit numerical code

(00-99)


1 = Plain language comments; e.g.

clear, overcast, rain etc.


96 , Comma delimited
97 - 98 ww (present weather) Left justify, blank fill.

Key the coded present weather value when available. Present weather code (ww), code figures = 00-99. Enter two-digit code as entered on form. If more than one entry, key the higher value. Many of the lightship observers use plain language comments; e.g. Clear, Overcast, Rain, etc. In these cases key enter the following codes in positions 97 and 98:

CR = Clear/Blue Sky

PC = Partly Cloudy

BC = Broken Clouds

CY = Cloudy/Overcast/Ovc/O

CL = Cloudy & Lightning

HZ = Hazy/Haze/Z

FG = Fog

RN = Rain

LR = Light Rain

DZ = Drizzle/L

SN = Snow

LS = Light Snow

SS = Snow Showers/Snow Flurries

RQ = Rain Squalls

SQ = Squalls

FR = Fog & Rain

OH = Overcast & Haze

SL = Sleet

RS = Rain Showers

GL = Gloomy

M = Missing

MI = Mist

HL = Hail

HU = Hurricane

This list is subject to revision upon discovery of additional plain language comments.

99 , Comma delimited


100 W (past weather) Past weather code figures 0-9. Enter the value as coded (0-9). The past weather is often not reported by lightships; blank fill when not reported.
101 , Comma delimited
102-106 PPP Sea-level pressure (mbs) Sea level pressure in millibars, decimal implied; key observed if available, otherwise, key coded.

e.g. if 1017.3 reported, then:

Position 102 = 1

Position 103 = 0

Position 104 = 1

Position 105 = 7

Position 106 = 3
If only coded value reported, e.g. 152, then:

Position 102 = blank

Position 103 = blank

Position 104 = 1

Position 105 = 5

Position 106 = 2


Occasionally the observers reported sea-level pressure to whole millibars. When this occurs blank fill tenths position. E.g. 1027

Position 102 = 1

Position 103 = 0

Position 104 = 2

Position 105 = 7

Position 106 = blank

Note: the observer occasionally reported the sea level pressure in inches. Key as entered on form, right justify, decimal implied.
107 , Comma delimited
108-112 TT (dry bulb temperature) Temperature is reported in oF. Position 108 = sign field; if positive blank fill, if negative enter a dash (-). Positions 109-111 = whole numbers, and position 112 is reserved for tenths of degrees Fahrenheit (if not available, blank fill position 112). Most observed temperature entries are reported to tenths of degrees F, and where available should be the keyed value. If not available key in the coded value.
If 47.5 oF is reported:

Position 108 = blank

Position 109 = blank

Position 110 = 4

Position 111 = 7

Position 112 = 5

If reported to whole oF (e.g. 75):

Position 108 = blank

Position 109 = blank

Position 110 = 7

Position 111 = 5

Position 112 = blank ( tenths position)

If -5.2 oF is reported:

Position 108 = -

Position 109 = blank

Position 110 = blank

Position 111 = 5

Position 112 = 2


113 , Comma delimited

114 - 117 Wet bulb temperature Wet bulb temperature in oF. Position 114 = sign field. Follow same rules as for dry bulb temperature above, e.g. if 68.3 oF reported then:

Position 114 = blank

Position 115 = 6

Position 116 = 8

Position 117 = 3 (reserved for tenths of oF)

Occasionally, a light ship will place the water temperature (Sea) in the wet bulb field. When this occurs key the water (Sea) temperature in positions 156-157.
118 , Comma delimited
119 - 121 Depression Difference between dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures. Positions 119 -120 whole degrees, position 121 tenths of degrees, e.g. if difference is 7.5 oF, then: position 119 = blank

position 120= 7

position 121 = 5 (pos.121 reserved for tenths of oF)
122 , Comma delimited
123-124 Nh Nh - amount of clouds whose height is given by “h”. Key the observed value if available, otherwise, key the coded value. If observed (0-10), right justify zero fill; if coded value (0-9,/), right justify blank fill. Often not reported by lightships; blank fill when not reported.

125 , Comma delimited

126-127 CL (low cloud type) Forms state “CL Clouds, low cloud type” even though the CL code is only a one digit code = (0-9, /). Lightships rarely report clouds, but when reported they usually use an alphabetic abbreviation (e.g. SC for stratocumulus or CU for cumulus, etc.). When the alpha abbreviation is used, positions 126-127 shall be keyed as entered on the observational form unless the coded value is available; in that case, enter the value (0-9 or /) in position 126 and blank fill position 127.
128 , Comma delimited
129-130 h (height of lowest cloud) h - height above the ground (sea) of the base of the lowest cloud seen, code figures = (0-9 or /). h in Feet/Meters. Key coded value when available in position 129 and blank fill position 130. If only the observed value available in hundreds of feet, e.g. 5000ft = 50, then key the 50 into positions 129-130.
131 , Comma delimited

132-133 CM (middle cloud type) Use same rules for keying CM (middle cloud type) as for low cloud type positions 126-127.


134 , Comma delimited
135-136 CH (high cloud type) Use same rules for keying CH (high cloud type) as for low cloud type positions 126-127.
137 , Comma delimited
138 - 140 DC (clouds, direction; DC is a one digit WMO code (0-9)

CL or CM or CH ) representing the 8 cardinal

directions. Although rarely entered,

a few examples were located for land

stations which used alpha entries

(e.g. N, NE, etc.) for direction rather

than the code values. For either

alpha or numeric code entries left

justify and blank fill. If no DC

entry, blank fill.
141 , Comma delimited
142 a (3 hour pressure characteristic) Characteristic of pressure tendency

during the three hours preceding the time of the observations, code figures = 0-9.


143 , Comma delimited
144-145 pp (3 hour pressure tendency) The 3 hour pressure change was generally recorded in hundredths of inches and then converted to tenths of millibars in the coded field. Only key enter the coded value; e.g. 34, then:

Position 144 = 3

Position 145 = 4

Sign provided in the characteristic of pressure tendency (position 142)


146 , Comma delimited
147 - 150 RR (total precipitation past 6 hrs) Total precipitation during the past 6 hours/ amount of precipitation measured at observation time (every 6 hours). Not reported by lightships. Precipitation in hundredths of inches.

Key from the observed column when available. Positions 147-148 for whole inches and positions 149-150 for hundredths of inches; e.g. if = 1.57 inches reported, then

Position 147 = blank

Position 148 = 1

Position 149 = 5

Position 150 = 7

If a trace is observed, then place T in position 150 and blank fill positions 147-149.
151 , Comma delimited
152 Rt (time of precipitation) Time of precipitation. Enter the single digit code when available. Generally only reported by land sites.
153 , Comma delimited
154 s (depth of snow) If available key in the code value (0-9), otherwise blank fill.
155 , Comma delimited
156 -157 SPSP Special phenomenon Sea surface temperature (water

general data temperature) is often reported in the (Water/Sea Temperature) SPSP field and occasionally in the spsp Special phenomena spsp field (special phenomenon, detailed data detailed data) for lightships. If numeric assume the entry in these fields is the water temperature, key in these positions; e.g. if entry = 56, then: Position 156 = 5

Position 157 = 6

If water temperature entered in the Wet Bulb field, enter in this position (156-157). The temperatures should always be positive, being in oF and at the lightship latitudes.


158 , Comma delimited
159-162 dw (Direction of waves) dw appears to be a misprint on the 1083 form (Revised 1-1-1949) and on subsequent 610 forms because effective Jan 1, 1949, the wave direction code (internationally established) should have been dwdw. Directions in tens of degrees from which waves come. 50 was added to the direction to indicate wave heights greater than 4.5 meters (see Hw code). If the wave direction is coded as a single digit code, dw (0-9), then key into position 159 and blank fill 160-162. However, in most cases, the lightship observer entered the direction as an alpha code, e.g. NNW or NExE, in which case left justify and blank fill. If coded as per requirements (00-36, 50-86, 49 or 99), place in positions 159-160 and blank fill 162.
163 , Comma delimited
164 PW (period of waves) PW - period of waves (code figures 0-9, x or /) See note below.
165 , Comma delimited
166 Wave height units indicator 1 = no units specified on form

2 = feet


3 = meters

4 = half meters


167 , Comma delimited

168-169 Hw (wave height) Hw - Mean maximum height of waves (Code figures 0-9, x or /). 50 is added to the wave direction to report wave heights greater than 4.5 meters. However, the observer would often report the wave heights in units other than the single digit code. To account for this the field has been expanded to two positions and the keyers are to enter the value as entered by the observer. Right justify and insure the units code (position 166) is set correctly. If the observer reports wave height as a fraction then the keyers should enter a pound sign “#” in Position 169. If the observer enters a range e.g. 1-2 key the higher value.

170 , Comma delimited.





  • h85 (height of 850mb sfc.) Do not key this parameter

(height of 850 mb surface, to nearest 10 geopotential feet by omitting the units digit)


  • a3 Do not key this parameter

(a3 - pressure tendency for 3-hour period ending 3 hours ago)

171-174 R24 (24 hour precipitation) Total 24 hour precipitation to the nearest hundredth of an inch omitting the decimal point. Right justify blank fill.


175 , Comma delimited
176-179 TxTx (Maximum Temperature) Maximum temperature for the past 6

hours (degrees Fahrenheit). Key

observed value if available, as it

should be to tenths of a degree

resolution. If positive, positions

176-178 reserved for whole degrees

(right justify blank fill) and 179 for

tenths of degrees. If a negative

value, then position 176 is the sign

field and will have a dash (-)

entered. Positions 177-178 are for

whole degrees and position 179 for

tenths of degrees. If resolution not

reported to tenths of degree

Fahrenheit, then blank fill position

179.
180 , Comma delimited


181–184 TnTn (Minimum Temperature) Same rules as for maximum temperatures (positions 176-179).
185 , Comma delimited
186 Plain language data Occasionally, the “state of the sea” is reported in the plain language data field as a word entry, e.g. “slight”, “moderate”, etc. Code according to the following table; e.g. slight would be keyed as:

Position 186 = 2


Also, occasionally the water (sea) temperature is reported in the plain language section. Key enter into positions 156-157 when available.

State of Sea



Scale

Description

Height of wave crest to trough

Abbreviation

0

Calm

0

Calm

1

Smooth

Less than 1 foot

Sm

2

Slight

1 to 3 feet

Sl

3

Moderate

3 to 5 feet

M

4

Rough

5 to 8 feet

R

5

Very rough

8 to 12 feet

VR

6

High

12 to 20 feet

H

7

Very High

20 to 40 feet

VH

8

Precipitous

Over 40 feet

P

9

Confused

.........................

Con

C

Choppy







Wind Velocity Code

Code

figures


Beaufort

Number


Description

Equivalent Speed

In Knots


00

Zero

Calm

0

02

One

Light airs

1-3

05

Two

Light breeze

4-6

09

Three

Gentle breeze

7-10

13

Four

Moderate breeze

11-16

18

Five

Fresh breeze

17-21

24

Six

Strong breeze

22-27

30

Seven

High wind (moderate gale)

28-33

37

Eight

Gale (fresh gale)

34-40

44

Nine

Strong gale

41-47

52

Ten

Whole gale

48-55

60

Eleven

Storm

56-63

68

Twelve

Hurricane

64 and above

187 , Comma delimited


188-191 Observed barometer (inches) Barometer measured in inches.

Decimal implied, e.g. if 29.97

Position 188 = 2

Position 189 = 9

Position 190 = 9

Position 191 = 7


Note: The following elements are those commonly reported by lightships:
Visibility

Present Weather (ww)

Dry Bulb (air temperature)

Sea Level Pressure

Wind Direction

Wind Speed (velocity)

Water Temperature (sea temperature)

Wave direction, period and height

State of Sea (plain language remarks - see table above)
Notes:


  1. When the keyers encounter a “/” or “x” then they are to key a dash (-).

2. Whenever an element field has a value to be keyed, but the value cannot be determined

because of illegibility or non-recognizable characters by the keyer then place a tilde (~)

in the last position of that element field. This will provide the data user with information

that an entry was made by the observer but could not be keyed. If sufficiently interested

the user can view that image.





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