1910 mangrove* 9: 14942 india 10: 395 mangrove* and india 11: 2070 #6 12: 395 #10 1 of 395 ti: Antiviral activity of marine plants au: Padmakumar,-K.; Ayyakkannu,-K. Af: Dep. Aquatic Biol and Fish., Univ

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No. Records Request 1: 1910 MANGROVE 2: 14942 INDIA 3: 1910 MANGROVE 4: 14942 INDIA 5: 366 MANGROVE and INDIA 6: 2070 MANGROVE* 7: 14942 INDIA 8: >1910 MANGROVE* 9: 14942 INDIA 10: 395 MANGROVE* and INDIA 11: 2070 #6 12: 395 #10 1 of 395 TI: Antiviral activity of marine plants AU: Padmakumar,-K.; Ayyakkannu,-K. AF: Dep. Aquatic Biol. and Fish., Univ. Kerala, Beach, P.O. Trivandrum-695007, India SO: INDIAN-J.-VIROL. 1997 vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 33-36 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Extracts of 50 species of marine algae and 16 mangroves were screened for antiviral activity against Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). Among this 32% of marine algae and 62.5% of mangroves inhibited TMV. The red alga Centroceras clavulatum and the seeds of the mangrove Bruguiera cylindrica and leaves of Excoecaria agallocha showed significant antiviral (>70% inhibition) activity. AN: 4055090 2 of 395 TI: Changes of Holocene climate in the coastal zone of West Bengal AU: Barui,-N.C.; Chandra,-S. AF: Department of Botany, Raja Rammohan Roy College, Nangulpara 712 406, Hooghly, India CO: IGBP Symp. on Changes in Global Climate Due to Natural and Human Activities, Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar (India), 15-17 Jan 1997 SO: IGBP-SYMPOSIUM-ON-CHANGES-IN-GLOBAL-CLIMATE-DUE-TO-NATURAL-AND-HUMAN-ACTIVITIES. Das,-S.N.;Thakur,-R.S.-eds. NEW-DELHI-INDIA ALLIED 1997 pp. 168-172 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: The fresh subsurface peat samples were palynologically investigated from exposed sedimentary sections at Calcutta, Hooghly and Howrah. The dominant recovered types were Heritiera along with the some members of mangrove vegetation. The assemblege depicts existence of swampy halophytic vegetation about 7030 yrs. B.P. The migration of Sundarbans towards South was probably due to continued river silting and other associated physical and biotic factors. AN: 4034570 3 of 395 TI: Studies on mangrove ecosystem using remote sensing data AU: Prasad,-V.K.; Rajagopal,-T.; Soujanya,-Y.K.L.; Srinivas,-D.S.; Badarinath,-K.V.S. AF: National Remote Sensing Agency, Bangalore, Hyderabad 500 037, India CO: IGBP Symp. on Changes in Global Climate Due to Natural and Human Activities, Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar (India), 15-17 Jan 1997 SO: IGBP-SYMPOSIUM-ON-CHANGES-IN-GLOBAL-CLIMATE-DUE-TO-NATURAL-AND-HUMAN-ACTIVITIES. Das,-S.N.;Thakur,-R.S.-eds. NEW-DELHI-INDIA ALLIED 1997 pp. 121-125 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Ths studies related to mangrove ecosystem are important in the context of global warming and sea level rise. Satellite remote sensing data provides information on dynamics on land use changes and provides information on aspects related to biodiversity. In the present study, remote sensing data has been used to study land use dynamics, impacts due to sea level rise and species richness in parts of Guntur District, Andhara Pradesh, India. AN: 4034568 4 of 395 TI: Significance of peat on the western continental shelf of India AU: Mascarenhas,-A. AF: NIO, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India SO: J.-GEOL.-SOC.-INDIA 1997 vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 145-152 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Peat layers 2 to 30 cm in thickness, 22 to 46 m below present sea level, are found along the inner shelf of India, up to 27 km from the coast. They are rich in plant debris, organic carbon and sulfur. These organic-rich layers are not sedimentary deposits. Lack of favourable substrates, absence of sheltered habitats, high energy physical environments, and a very rapid sea level rise during Early Holocene indicate an unfavourable paleogeography and adverse oceanographic conditions for mangrove development and in situ peat formation. On the contrary, significant siliciclastic minerals, lithogenous elements and type III kerogen suggest a continental origin of peat. Restricted thickness, limited lateral distribution, absence of matted structures and laminated deposition imply transport of organics. Anomalous ages of wood with respect to present sea level are evidences of sediment reworking. Hence, peats on the continental shelf are not transgressive deposits. AN: 4034548 5 of 395 TI: Remote sensing application for delineating coastal vegetation -- a case study AU: Kunte,-P.D.; Wagle,-B.G. AF: NIO, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India SO: CURR.-SCI. 1997 vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 239-241 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Remote sensing data has been used for mapping coastal vegetation along the Goa Coast, India. The study envisages the use of digital image processing techniques for delineating geomorphic features and associated vegetation, including mangrove, along the central part of the Goa Coast which includes the Mandovi-Zuari estuaries complex. It is concluded from the study that (1) repetitive coverage and spatial resolution of space borne data permits us to locate recently deposited alluvium and change in vegetation (2) though constant biotic pressure is severely degrading the coastal vegetation, there are a few locations, where recent alluvium has deposited forming favourable grounds for growth of vegetation. AN: 4034546 6 of 395 TI: Aquaculture: A solution, or source of new problems? AU: Masood,-E. SO: NATURE 1997 vol. 386, no. 6621, p. 109 LA: English ER: M (Marine); F (Freshwater) AB: Until recently, aquaculture--the selective breeding and raising of fish in "fish farms"--promised to resolve problems caused by the world's growing shortfall in marine fish supplies. But increasing awareness of its unwanted side-effects means that aquaculture itself is also heading for troubled waters, particularly in the developing countries. Intensive fish farming in India and China, for example, the world's largest aquaculture producers, has led to pollution and the spread of disease. Evidence is also emerging that the promotion of aquaculture--84 per cent takes place in Asia--is causing significant unemployment among those engaged in traditional fishing. Last month, India's Supreme Court dismissed a call for a judicial review of a decision last December demanding the closure of virtually all commercial shrimp farms in five coastal states by 15 April, and the payment of compensation to employees made redundant. The decision includes a ban on all aquaculture in mangrove swamps, estuaries, wet-lands, and on public land, as well as a prohibition on converting agricultural land into shrimp farms. The court had ordered the closure after a long campaign by environmentalist groups protesting in particular at the contamination of land and drinking water from the discharge of toxic effluent. AN: 4011385 7 of 395 TI: Acute toxicity of some heavy metals, pesticides and water soluble fractions of diesel oil to the larvae of some brachyuran crabs AU: Selvakumar,-S.; Khan,-S.A.; Kumaraguru,-A.K. AF: Sch. Energy, Environ. and Nat. Resour., Madurai Kamaraj Univ., Madurai - 625 021, India SO: J.-ENVIRON.-BIOL. 1996 vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 221-226 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: The 96h LC sub(50) values of pollutants for the crab larvae (Nanosesarma batavicum, Neoepisesarma mederi, Heteropanope indica) were as follows: mercury from 15 to 33 ppb, cadmium 80 to 100 ppb, zinc 125 to 250 ppb and copper 52 to 150 ppb; pesticide- DDT 155 ppb, endosulphan 31 ppb and diesel oil 4% WSF. Using the safe concentration factor of 0.01, the allowable safe concentration for Cu, Cd and Zn were 0.52 ppb, 1.15 ppb, and 1.25 ppb respectively while no such recommendation can be made for Hg, pesticides and diesel oil. Based on the LC sub(50) values and derived safe concentration most of the test species appear to be safe at present levels of these pollutants at the Vellar Estuary and associated backwaters and mangroves. AN: 4005967 8 of 395 TI: Texture and geochemistry of the sediments of a tropical mangrove ecosystem, southwest coast of India AU: Badarudeen,-A.; Damodaran,-K.T.; Sajan,-K.; Padmalal,-D. AF: Cent. for Earth Sci. Stud., Thuruvikkal P.O., Trivandrum 695 031, India SO: ENVIRON.-GEOL. 1996 vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 164-169 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: The textural and geochemical aspects of the sediments of a tropical mangrove ecosystem have been studied and discussed. The sediments are characterized by the abundance of silt and sand with minor amounts of clay. The mean size of the sediment ranges from 0.205 mm to 0.098 mm (fine to very fine grained sand). The sediments are very poorly sorted, negatively to very negatively skewed, and platy to extremely leptokurtic in nature. The organic carbon content of the sediments ranges from 0.33% to 4.93%, which is controlled by the particle size of the sediments. The CaCO sub(3) content is five times the enrichment of organic carbon. This enhanced CaCO sub(3) content of the mangrove sediments might be a result of the abundance of shell fragments in the sediments. The shell mining activities in the estuarine bed adjoining the Kumarakam mangroves also contribute a substantial amount of lime muds to the mangrove area, which in turn add CaCO sub(3) to the sediments. The relative concentrations of heavy metals are Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu. All heavy metals other than Fe show an increase in concentration compared to the other parts of the estuarine bed. Cluster analysis indicates that the contents of organic C, Fe and Mn have a marked bearing on the Cr, Zn, Ni, and Cu levels of the mangrove sediments. AN: 4004868 9 of 395 TI: Mangroves as indicators of coastal change AU: Blasco,-F.; Saenger,-P.; Janodet,-E. AF: Inst. for Intl. Map Vegetation, CNRS/Univ. Paul Sabatier, 13, Ave. du Colonel Roche, 31405 Toulouse Cedex, France SO: CATENA 1996 vol. 27, no. 3-4, pp. 167-178 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: In view of the unique biological characteristics of mangroves, it is interesting to assess the extent to which these ecosystems can be used as indicators of coastal change or sea-level rise. From recent studies of mangrove mortality at several locations (including Guiana, Gambia, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, India and Bangladesh), it appears that these coastal ecosystems are so specialized that any minor variation in their hydrological or tidal regimes causes noticeable mortality. Each species of mangrove (but particularly those belonging to the genera Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Sonneratia, Heritiera and Nypa) occurs in ecological conditions that approach its limit of tolerance with regard to salinity of the water and soil, as well as the inundation regime. If the duration of daily immersion were to be modified by tectonic, sedimentological or hydrological events, the species either readjusts to the new conditions or succumbs to unsuitable conditions. Consequently, the use of remote sensing data for mangrove ecosystems offers excellent potential as a tool for monitoring coastal change. AN: 4003659 10 of 395 TI: Conservation, regeneration and species selection in (Indian) Sundarbans AU: Saha,-S. AF: Dep. Botany, Darjeeling Govt. Coll., Darjeeling 734101, India SO: ENVIRON.-ECOL. 1995 vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 766-768 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish); F (Freshwater) AB: The (Indian) Sundarbans is floristically poorer, due to higher salinity and human interference. It is imperative to conserve the ecosystem for maintaining ecological balance, for protecting inland areas and for commercial exploitation. Artificial regeneration in foreshore lands has been done by hand and aerial seeding. Species are selected on the basis of greater utilizable biomass but should actually be done with respect to conditions prevailing at the particular area. AN: 3999043 11 of 395 TI: Waterbirds and substrate quality of the Pichavaram wetlands, southern India AU: Nagarajan,-R.; Thiyagesan,-K. AF: Div. Wildl. Biol., A.V.C. Coll., Mannampandal 609 305, Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu, India SO: IBIS 1996 vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 710-721 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: The water and mud characteristics of the six types of wetlands in Pichavaram were compared in order to determine whether the habitat of waterbird species was characterized by them. Waterbird species richness was most influenced by mud phosphorus levels. Variation in water pH was the principal factor that determined waterbird diversity. The water level mainly determined the density of waterbirds. Levels of pH and nitrites in the water also appeared to influence significant variations in waterbird diversity and density, respectively. Bottom substrate variables, viz. pH and phosphorus levels, were also significantly correlated with the density and richness of waterbirds, respectively. Water quality factors, viz. pH and nitrite and mud pH and phosphorus, were correlated with the abundance, while water depth was correlated with the accessibility of prey to the birds. AN: 3991352 12 of 395 TI: Microbial production of antibiotics from mangrove ecosystem AU: Kala,-R.R. AF: CMFRI, Cochin-682 014, India CA: Central Marine Fisheries Research Inst., Cochin [India] SO: MARICULTURE-RESEARCH-UNDER-THE-POSTGRADUATE-PROGRAMME-IN-MARICULTURE-PART-6 Rengarajan,-K.-eds. COCHIN-INDIA CMFRI 1995 no. 61 pp. 117-122 ST: CMFRI-SPEC.-PUBL. no. 61 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: The microbial interrelationship in mangrove sediments was found out by constructing the ratio between bacteria and actinomycetes, bacteria and fungi and fungi and actinomycetes. In addition temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen and organic carbon were determined seasonally and their possible relationship was statistically analysed and the results are presented. Isolated actinomycetes were subjected to cross streak assay to know their nature of antibiotic activity against test fish pathogens and crude antibiotics were extracted from selected isolates. Also their inhibitory activity was studied and the results discussed. AN: 3983823 13 of 395 TI: The effect of heavy metals on the physiological changes of microalgae AU: Ithack,-E.; Gopinathan,-C.P. AF: CMFRI, Cochin-682 014, India CA: Central Marine Fisheries Research Inst., Cochin [India] SO: MARICULTURE-RESEARCH-THE-UNDER-POSTGRADUATE-PROGRAMME-IN-MARICULTURE-PART-6 Rengarajan,-K.-eds. COCHIN-INDIA CMFRI 1995 no. 61 pp. 45-52 ST: CMFRI-SPEC.-PUBL. no. 61 LA: English AB: Experiments were conducted to find out tolerence limit of a microalgae to Copper, Zinc and Lead. Effect of heavy metals on growth rate, primary production and chlorophyll content of microalgae are examined. The effect of heavy metals on natural phytoplankton populations collected from mangrove ecosystem and prawn culture ponds are studied. Toxicity of heavy metals have been studied and the results shows that Copper is the most toxic and Lead is the least toxic heavy metal to both microalgae and natural population of phytoplankton. Natural populations collected from mangrove ecosystem was found to be more tolerant compared to populations of prawn culture pond. The author concludes with a remark that for successful operation of hatchery system the seawater should have very low concentration of heavy metal i.e, below 5 ppm of copper, 30 ppm of zinc and 50 ppm of lead for rearing larvae. AN: 3983821 14 of 395 TI: Aquaculture potential of mangrove ecosystem of Sunderbans, West Bengal, India AU: Chakraborty,-S.K. AF: Department of Zoology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore-721 102, West Bengal CO: Seminar on Fisheries - a Multibillion Dollar Industry, Madras (India), 17-19 Aug 1995 SO: PROCEEDINGS-OF-THE-SEMINAR-ON-FISHERIES-A-MULTIBILLION-DOLLAR-INDUSTRY-HELD-AT-MADRAS,-INDIA-FROM-AUGUST-17-TO-19,-1995. Krishnamoorthi,-B.;Krishnamoorthy,-K.N.;Meenakshisundaram,-P.T.;Nayar,-K.N.;eds. MADRAS-INDIA AQUACULTURE-FOUNDATION-OF-INDIA pp. 72-83 LA: English AB: The importance of mangrove ecosystem of Sunderbans for its potential for fisheries and aquaculture is discussed. Distribution of mangroves and physiography are explained with state wise data. The location of Sunderbans, the species composition of flora and fauna of the ecosystem and their zonation pattern are given. Seasonal variations and the associated changes in the water quality, physical, chemical and biological parameters are discussed. Soil quality is considered with regard to its suitability for the construction of aquaculture farms. The factors responsible for the production of mangrove ecosystem are enumerated. The paper also includes suggestions for the successful management of aquaculture ponds in Sunderbans. AN: 3983807 15 of 395 TI: Ecological issues vs sustained development in shrimp culture AU: Krishnan,-G.S. AF: MPEDA, Cochin, India SO: AQUA-INT. 1995 vol. 2, no. 10-12, pp. 6-10 LA: English AB: The paper discusses the major issues concerning the environmental and social aspects of aquaculture. The importance of effluent treatment system and aerators in culture ponds is explained. Destruction of mangroves for aquaculture purposes is opposed. Suggestions are made to avoid conflicts between farmers and local people. Suggestions to select appropriate system of culture are also given. AN: 3983620 16 of 395 TI: Seasonal fluctuation of soil nitrogen transforming microorganisms in Bhitarkanika mangrove forest AU: Routray,-T.K.; Satapathy,-G.C.; Mishra,-A.K. AF: Lab. Microbiol. and Plant Pathol., P.G. Dep. Botany, Utkal Univ., Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar - 751 004, India SO: J.-ENVIRON.-BIOL. 1996 vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 325-330 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: Studies on soil nitrogen transforming bacterial population of four different selected sites of Bhitarkanika mangrove forest reveal highest microbial population during winter and being lowest in rainy season. There is a gradual decrease in the bacterial population due to deforestation and adverse effect of increased salinity in deforested land and salty land respectively. Soil pH was found to be lower during summer and reaches to the peak during autumn. This is totally opposite with the case of soil organic carbon level. Soil available N sub(2) status of four different places showed a diverse effect, with season and is low in river bank soil, due to tidal flows. AN: 3980803 17 of 395 TI: Brackish water mosquito problem of Vypeen Island, Cochin, Kerala AU: Mariappan,-T.; Arunachalam,-N.; Reddy,-C.M.R.; Sabesan,-S.; Panicker,-K.N. AF: Vector Control Res. Cent., Pondicherry-605 006, India SO: SOUTHEAST-ASIAN-J.-TROP.-MED.-PUBLIC-HEALTH 1996 vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 145-148 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: A preliminary study has shown that the marshy terrain and brackish water bodies associated with mangrove forests contributed profuse breeding of mosquitos in Vypeen island, causing a severe menace to the island population. A total of 14 species belonging to four genera viz, Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres and Culex was recorded from different habitats. Culex sitiens was found to be the predominant mosquito in all the perennial breeding habitats. The extent of different habitats in the production of mosquitos, and its possible abatement, using environmental and/or biocontrol methods are discussed. AN: 3977950 18 of 395 TI: Avian mortality caused by a cyclone at the Pichavaram mangroves, southern India AU: Nagarajan,-R.; Thiyagesan,-K. AF: Div. Wildl. Biol., A. V. C. Coll., Mannampandal-609 305, Tamil Nadu, India SO: PAVO 1995 vol. 33, no. 1-2, pp. 117-122 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: Severe weather conditions have been identified as significant causal agents in avian nonhunting mortality. The present paper describes the mortality caused by a severe cyclonic storm on December 4, 1993 at the Pichavaram mangroves, Southern India. AN: 3977880 19 of 395 TI: Methanol-induced physiological changes in mangroves AU: Kathiresan,-K.; Moorthy,-P.; Rajendran,-N. AF: Cent. Advanced Study in Mar. Biol., Annamalai Univ., Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu, India SO: BULL.-MAR.-SCI. 1996 vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 454-458 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: This study has been undertaken to evaluate the effect of methanol on the physiological responses of four mangrove species belonging to the family-Rhizophoraceae viz., Rhizophora apiculata Blume, R. mucronata Lam., Bruguiera cylindrica (L.) Blume and Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou. AN: 3974877 20 of 395 TI: Mainwaringia Nevill, 1885, a littorinid genus from Asiatic mangrove forests, and a case of protandrous hermaphroditism AU: Reid,-D.G. AF: Department of Zoology, British Museum (Natural History), London SW7 5BD, UK SO: J.-MOLLUSC.-STUD. 1986 vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 225-242 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: On the basis of reproductive anatomy and radula, the poorly known genus Mainwaringia Nevill, 1885, is shown to belong to the Littorinidae. The genus is represented by two species, M. leithii (E.A. Smith, 1876) from India to Vietnam, and a new species, M. rhizophila, from Malaysia to Hong Kong. Both occur in mangrove forests. The reproductive anatomy of M. rhizophila is described in detail, and it is interpreted as a protandrous hermaphrodite, a condition unique in the Littorinacea. In the intersexual and female stages both closed pallial oviduct and open prostate are present in the mantle wall, suggesting that these structures are not strictly homologous. The affinities of Mainwaringia are discussed, and it is concluded that it may be most closely related to Littorina s.s (DBO). AN: 3969709 21 of 395 TI: Distribution of organic carbon in the sediments of Cochin mangroves, south west coast of India AU: Kumar,-R.S. AF: School of Marine Sciences, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 016, India SO: INDIAN-J.-MAR.-SCI. 1996 vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 274-276 LA: English AB: Vertical and horizontal distribution pattern of organic carbon in the mangrove sediments have been studied. Concentration of organic carbon varied from 0.17 to 4.05% in the study area. Correlation and predilection between organic carbon and the texture of sediment are elucidated. Organic carbon has a proportional and patent relationship with the finer fractions (silt + clay) of the sediment. Inconsistent pattern conccomitant with the inconsistant concentration in accumulation of organic carbon in the sediment with regard to vertical as well as horizontal distribution was discernible in the tidal area of mangrove swamp. AN: 3960706 22 of 395 TI: Growth of mangrove seedlings in the intertidal area of Vellar Estuary, southeast coast of India AU: Kathiresan,-K.; Rajendran,-N.; Thangadurai,-G. AF: CAS in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu, India SO: INDIAN-J.-MAR.-SCI. 1996 vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 240-243 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: Growth of Rhizophora apiculata Blume seedlings in lower intertidal zones, grew more rapidly than those in upper intertidal ones. The growth was about 2.5-fold greater and the leaf sprouting was about 4-fold higher in the seedlings growing in the lowermost intertidal zone than those in uppermost intertidal zone. The growth was also rapid towards the monsoon month of December associated with low salinity and high levels of nutrients. There was about 5-fold more of seedling growth and about 4-fold higher of leaf sprouting in December than those in summer months (April, July). AN: 3960699 23 of 395 TI: Organodebris analysis of Chilka Lake, Orissa, India: An assessment of depositional environment AU: Khandelwal,-A.; Gupta,-H.P. AF: Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, 53 University Road, Lucknow 226 007, India SO: PALAEOBOTANIST 1994 vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 215-224 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: This paper presnets the results of organic matter analysis from Chilka Lake, Orissa, India. A coordinated attempt has been made to classify and interpret total organic matter (TOM) in relation to the depositional environment. Organodebris analysis dated back to ca 3,200 years B.P. has provided clues that ponding environment gave rise to reducing (anaerobic) conditions which probably accelerated microbial activity, transforming the palynodebris into first semi-amorphous/amorphous and then into fine organic matter. Various phases of mangrove vegetation development, the factors responsible for degrading mangals and land denudation have also been discussed in the light of multivariate methods of data analysis. AN: 3960658 24 of 395 TI: Distribution of organic matter, iron and mangenese in the estuarine clay of mangrove sediments, Tellicherry, Kerala (India) AU: Thamban,-M.; Reghunadh,-K.; Sajan,-K. AF: School of Marine Science, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 016, India SO: J.-GEOL.-SOC.-INDIA 1996 vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 183-188 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: The surficial mangrove sediments in the estuarine course of Eranholi River were sampled at 21 locations and analysed for the determination of organic matter, iron and manganese in 2 mm size fraction of the sediments. The study indicated that these constituents are apparently controlled by the spatial variations of the physico-chemical factors of the estuary such as pH and Eh, base exchange and adsorption characteristics and the texture of the sediments, tidal influence and proximity to the mangrove vegetation in the prevailing estuarine environment. AN: 3960573 25 of 395 TI: Effect of salinity on amino acid composition of the marine fungus Cirrenalia pygmea AU: Ravishankar,-J.P.; Muruganandam,-V.; Suryanarayana,-T.S. AF: Department of Botany, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College, Madras 600 004, India SO: CURR.-SCI. 1996 vol. 70, no. 12, pp. 1086-1087 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Cirrenalia pygmea, a mangrove fungus, was grown at various salinities and its amino acid composition determined. Higher salinity led to an increase in the amino acid pool size and the number of amino acids produced. Acidic amino acids were present in higher concentrations at 6.9 ppt and 20.7 ppt salinities. Gln, His, Thr, Arg and Val were present only when the fungus was exposed to high salinity conditions. The concentration of Gly increased with salinity. Arginine and ornithine were present in low salinity, but in high concentrations at higher salinities. Proline and Dragendorff-positive compounds were absent. AN: 3960555 26 of 395 TI: Wood-boring organisms from Valapattanam backwaters, south west coast of India AU: Nair,-N.B. AF: Department of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, University of Kerala, Trivandrum 695 007, India SO: INDIAN-J.-MAR.-SCI. 1996 vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 170-172 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: Dicvathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Teredo furcifera, Nausitora hedleyi, Bankia companellata, of the Teredinidae; Martesia striata, M. (Particoma) nairi the Pholadidae and Sphaeroma terebrans, S. annandalei of the Sphaeromatidae were the species active in the area. The most destructive group was sphaeromatids forming as much as 85.4%. Maximum incidence of L. pedicellatus was noted towards the low saline areas while D. manni and T. furcifera exhibited a different raction preferring area around the bar-mouth where the salinity was maximum, the former attacking even live mangroves. M. (P.) nairi and S. terebrans were very common both exhibiting tolerance to wide ranges of salinity. It was observed that different species effectively avoided competition and thus shared the limited wood substratum available in the estuary through their salinity preperences. AN: 3960551 27 of 395 TI: Culture of marine cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue (Myxophyceae/Hormogonales) AU: Palaniselvam,-V.; Kathiresan,-K. AF: CAS in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu, India SO: INDIAN-J.-MAR.-SCI. 1996 vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 165-167 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Phormidium tenue from mangrove and shrimp pond ecosytems was studied for biomass production. The species grew well under laboratory conditions in the marine nutrient (MN) medium incorporated with urea (92 mu g.l super(-1)) and potash (4.94 mu g.l super(-1)), maintained at a salinity of 40 x 10 super(-3), pH 8 and light intensity of 160 J.s super(-1). Under field conditions, the species did not require any addition of nutrients to the MN medium, but only shaded condition and 15 cm of water depth for better biomass production. AN: 3960549 28 of 395 TI: Fungal diversity on decomposing biomass of mangrove plant Rhizophora in Pichavaram Estuary, east coast of India AU: Ravikumar,-D.R.; Vittal,-B.P.R. AF: CAS in Botany, University of Madras, Madras 600 025, India CO: Natl. Semin. on Conservation and Sustainable Development of Coastal Resources, Berhampur, India, 14-17 Dec 1994 SO: INDIAN-J.-MAR.-SCI. 1996 vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 142-144 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Mycological examination of dead wood, prop roots and seedling of Rhizophora spp. (R. apiculata and R. mucronata) yielded 48 fungal species belonging to 36 genera with Ascomycotina being most prevalent. The number of fungi recorded on prop roots (44) were much greater when compared with seedling (18) and wood (16). Each substrate had its own common, frequent and occasional fungi appearing on them. The most common and abundant fungus on wood was Lophiostoma mangrovei. Verruculina enalia was most common on prop roots and seedlings. Some of the fungi were found to occur on all the three substrates, but their frequency and percentage occurrence on individual substrates varied. Halocyphina villosa, the lone Basidiomycete recorded was more abundant on seedlings, while Monodictys pelagica showed relatively high occurrence on wood and the least on seedlings. AN: 3960541 29 of 395 TI: Meiobenthos of mangrove mudflats from shallow region of Thane Creek, central west coast of India AU: Goldin,-Q.; Mishra,-V.; Ullal,-V.; Athalye,-R.P.; Gokhale,-K.S. AF: Department of Zoology, B.N. Bandodkar College of Science, Thane 400 601, India SO: INDIAN-J.-MAR.-SCI. 1996 vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 137-141 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Studies on the meiobenthos of intertidal zone of mangrove mudflats revealed dominance of nematodes (78.35%) with insignificant seasonal variations. The other constituents were tube polychaetes and oligochaetes, the latter contributing a major share to meiobenthos only at the station in the proximity of sewage outlet. Generally the meiobenthic abundance was higher at low level water mark (44.30% of density and 56.40% of biomass) and low during monsoon (20.90%). The meiobenthic productivity ranged between 4650 to 9835 g/m super(2) and was mainly governed by macrobenthic population density. AN: 3960540 30 of 395 TI: Palynological investigation of the Arabian Sea bottom surface sediments along the western coast of India AU: Yadav,-R.R.; Chandra,-A.; Gupta,-H.P. AF: Birbal Sahni Inst. Palaeobotany, 53 Univ. Rd., Lucknow 226 007, India SO: GEOPHYTOLOGY 1993 vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 221-226 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Pollen analyses of surface sediments from continental shelf and slope of the Arabian Sea along the western coast of India (12 degree 47' - 15 degree 55' N and 72 degree 20' - 74 degree 52' E) have revealed a good assemblage of pollen taxa representing littoral, mangrove and tropical upland vegetation. The pollen are distributed up to 123 km offshore. With the increase in offshore distance, the quantity and quality of pollen decrease proportionately. Pollen spectra show that amongst the mangroves, rhizophoraceous pollen are overrepresented as compared to their presence on the corresponding coasts. The tropical plants, viz., Terminalia, Sapotaceae, Caryota, Anacardiaceae and Acacia, etc. are fairly well represented. Overall dominance of non-arboreals over the arboreals is recorded in the pollen spectra. AN: 3956086 31 of 395 TI: Treasured islands! An environmental handbook for teachers in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands AU: Rao,-S. SO: NEW-DELHI-INDIA KALPAVRIKSH 1996 94 pp LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India are one of the world's finest examples of a tropical coral island ecosystem. Endowed with diverse habitats ranging from rain forests to the open ocean, they are also home to ancient hunter-gatherer tribes and a mosaic of people settled there from the Indian mainland. This handbook is aimed at teachers of the islands to help them initiate environmental awareness among students in schools; however, it is also of use to anyone involved in basic environmental education. Information is presented on the following: 1) Oceans; 2) Coral reefs; 3) Beaches; 4) Mangroves; 5) Rain forests; 6) Indigenous tribes; 7) Human impact on the environment; and, 8) Checklists of selected mammals, birds, reptiles and plants. Full descriptions are provided of 45 activities for teachers to do with students, including many action tips to help save the islands from the threats they face. AN: 3950824 32 of 395 TI: Nutritive values of leaf and leaf litters of two mangroves of the sundarbans for prawn and fish culture AU: Sil,-H.; Ray,-K.; Kaviraj,-A.* AF: Dep. Zool., Univ. Kalyani-741 235, India SO: NATL.-ACAD.-SCI.-LETT. 1995 vol. 18, no. 1-2, pp. 43-46 LA: English AB: Maximum amount of moisture, protein, soluble carbohydrate and lipid were found in the tender leaves of mangroves Excoecaria agallocha (Linn.) and Ceriops decandra (Ding Hou). These values were found to decrease with the maturity of leaves and minimum values were found in the detritus. Crude fibre content showed an opposite trend, organic carbon content decreased from tender to withered form of leaves, but increased in the detritus. Protein and moisture content were higher in Excoecaria as compared to Ceriops. Detritus of these two species did not show any significant qualitative variation. It was found that full grown leaves could be used, instead of natural withering of leaves, to decompose and enrich the nutrient quality of water. AN: 3949168 33 of 395 TI: Variation in nuclear DNA content and karyotype analysis in three species of Avicennia, a tree mangrove of coastal Orissa AU: Das,-A.B.; Basak,-U.C.; Das,-P.* AF: Mangrove Res. Cent., Regional Plant Resour. Cent., Bhubaneswar 751015, Orissa, India SO: CYTOBIOS 1995 vol. 84, no. 337, pp. 93-102 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: Karyotype analysis and cytophotometric estimation of 4C nuclear DNA amount were carried out in Avicennia alba, A. marina and A. officinalis found in the mangrove forests of Orissa, India. The somatic chromosome numbers, except in A. alba (2n = 66), were reported for the first time in A. marina (2n = 62) and A. officinalis (2n = 64). Karyotype analysis revealed species specific chromosomal characteristics, numerical and minute structural alterations of chromosomes. Critical analysis of nuclear DNA showed significant variation in the amount of 4C DNA between the three species. The correlation coefficient with the various chromosomal and nuclear parameters were interdependent suggesting a compromise between structural and molecular changes of the genome architecture during microevolution in speciation. AN: 3947432 34 of 395 TI: Ecological changes in a tropical mangrove ecosystem due to human impact AU: Balaparameswara-Rao,-M.; M.Balaparameswara-Rao,-P.N.; Reddy,-D.L.; Rambabu,-A.V.S.; Prasad,-B.V. AF: Nagarjuna University, Nagarjunanagar 522 510, India SO: TROP.-ECOL. 1987 vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 232-238 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: The present paper deals with the use and misuse of mangroves and the impact of indiscriminate destruction of the vegetation for agricultural reclamation as well as for fuel, fodder and number of other uses on the distribution of the flora and the molluscan fauna in the Nizampatnam mangroves located about 35 km south of the Krishna river confluence in South India. (DBO) AN: 3944879 35 of 395 TI: Colour variation in Pythia plicata (Ferussac) (Gastropoda: Ellobioidea) AU: Cook,-L.M. AF: Manchester Mus., Univ. Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK SO: J.-MOLLUSCAN-STUD. 1996 vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 127-129 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: A number of molluscan groups have species particularly associated with mangroves, living either in the mud and silt or on the trees. In January 1993 I visited mangroves on two islands in the south-eastern part of the Delta area of Bangladesh. In that region, chars are low-lying islands composed of consolidated silt, often peopled by a community living by fishing and cultivation. Mangroves were examined on two of these which lie south of the island referred to as Dakhin Shahbaz in the Times Atlas, namely Dhal Char and Char Kukrimukri. In both places the predominant mangrove trees were Sonneratia apetala. At Char Kukrimukri Pythia plicata (Ferussac, 1821) occurs, a pulmonate in the superfamily Ellobioidea, with a distribution at least from Sri Lanka to the east coast of Thailand, including the Delta region and the Andaman islands. A sample was collected from the leaves of A. ilicifolia and E. agallocha. Individuals were present singly on leaves 1 to 2 m above the ground, a few per bush, with gaps between occupied bushes. The snails had been feeding and were partially emerged and active; soil on their shells indicated that they sometimes descend to and burrow in the ground. AN: 3931003 36 of 395 TI: Chlorophylls, carotenoids, proteins and secondary metabolites in leaves of 14 species of mangrove AU: Basak,-U.C.; Das,-A.B.; Das,-P. AF: Mangrove Res. Cent., Regional Plant Resour. Cent., Bhubaneswar 751015, Orissa, India SO: BULL.-MAR.-SCI. 1996 vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 654-659 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: Chlorophyll a, b, a+b, a:b, carotenoids, TAN (Titrable Acid Number), proteins, polyphenols, and tannin content of 14 species of mangroves viz. Aegiceras corniculatum, Aglaia cucullata, Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera parviflora, B. sexangula, Ceriops decandra, Cynometra iripa, Excoecaria agallocha, Heritiera fomes, H. littoralis, H. macrophylla, Kandelia candel, Rhizophora mucronata and Xylocarpus granatum found in the mangrove forests of Bhitarkanika and the Mahanadi delta of Orissa were estimated. Total chlorophyll content varied from 0.21% in A. cucullata and C. decandra to 0.56% in A. corniculatum. Calculated chlorophyll a:b ratio was the minimum (1.55) in A. officinalis and the maximum (3.50) in B. sexangula. The carotenoids also varied from 0.04% in B. sexangula to 0.17% in A. corniculatum. Analysis of Variance showed intra- and interspecific variations in photosynthetic activities. TAN values revealed appreciable variations from 20.00 to 45.00 in A. officinalis and H. littoralis respectively. TAN values showed negative correlation with chlorophyll b and carotenoids, but highly significant positive correlation was noted with chlorophyll a:b ratio among the species. Total leaf protein content significantly varied from 12.21% in H. macrophylla to 29.22% in H. fomes. The quantitative analysis of tannin and polyphenols from the leaves of mangroves showed significant variation, 8.39% to 44.27% in A. cucullata and B.sexangula and 11.39% to 52.89% in A. officinalis and C. decandra respectively. Statistical analysis of the endogenous level of polyphenols and tannins showed no interdependence with leaf proteins. AN: 3928559 37 of 395 TI: Laboratory cultured zoeae and megalopa of the mangrove crab Metaplax distincta H. Milne Edwards, 1852 (Brachyura: Sesarminae) AU: Krishnan,-T.; Kannupandi,-T. AF: Mar. Ecol. and Coast. Aquacult. Unit, Cent. Adv. Study in Mar. Biol., Annamalai Univ., Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu, India SO: J.-PLANKTON-RES. 1989 vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 633-648 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: Larvae of Metaplax distincta were reared in the laboratory to the first crab instar under the culture conditions of 20 plus or minus 1 ppt, 27 plus or minus 1 degree C and 12/12 h light/dark. First zoeae reached the first crab instar in six moults, after a minimum time of 19 days. Five zoeal stages and a megalopa stage are described and compared with other known descriptions of sesarminid species. (DBO) AN: 3906800 38 of 395 TI: Analgesic activity of marine plants AU: Padmakumar,-K.; Ramaswamy,-S.; Ayyakkannu,-K.; Nair,-P.G.V. AF: Dep. Aquat. Biol. Fish., Univ. Kerala, Beach P.O. Trivandrum - 695 007, India CO: Symp. on Nutrients and Bioactive Substances in Aquatic Organisms, Cochin, Kerala (India), 16-17 Sep 1993 SO: NUTRIENTS-AND-BIOACTIVE-SUBSTANCES-IN-AQUATIC-ORGANISMS.-PAPERS-PRESENTED-IN-THE-SYMPOSIUM-HELD-IN-COCHIN,-INDIA-16-17-SEPTEMBER-1993. Devadasan,-K.;Mukundan,-M.K.;Antony,-P.D.;Nair,-P.G.V.;Perigreen,-P.A.;Joseph,-J.-eds. COCHIN-INDIA SOCIETY-OF-FISHERIES-TECHNOLOGISTS-INDIA 1994 pp. 25-30 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Seventeen species of marine plants were screened for analgesic activity. Among this 3 mangrove, Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina and Excoecaria agallocha showed significant analgesic activity at 160 mg/kg. The root of A. ilicifolius produced maximum effect (89.7%) followed by leaf (57%) and flower (37.8%). Similarly the E. agallocha also showed 87.7% inhibition but A. marina was found to be less active (26.9%) than A. ilicifolius and E. agallocha. All plants found active in this study showed significant dose dependent analgesic activity. However, all plants are less effective when compared to morphine which is well evidenced from the ED sub(50) values of morphine (0.25 mg/kg) and the root of A. ilicifolius (9.6 mg/kg), leaf of E. agallocha (11 mg/kg) and A. marina (30.4 mg/kg). AN: 3894814 39 of 395 TI: Status and strategy for eco-resurrection of mangroves in Andhra Pradesh AU: Reddy,-N.A.V.; Venkiah,-M. AF: Acad. Staff Coll., Andhra Univ., Waltair, Andhra Pradesh, India SO: FISH.-CHIMES 1995 vol. 14, no. 12, p. 15 LA: English AB: After a general introduction to Mangroves and their importance, the article describes the natural dispersal of Mangroves on coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, which is however threatened by their excessive exploitation. A development strategy to collect and transplant seedlings, vegetative propagation techniques and habitat formation are envisaged. AN: 3887663 40 of 395 TI: Endangered, vulnerable and rare marine fishes and animals AU: James,-P.S.B.R. AF: CMFRI, P.B. No. 1603, Cochin-682014, India CO: Natl. Semin. on Endangered Fishes of India Natl. Semin. on Endangered Fishes of India, Allahabad (India), 25-26 Apr 1992 SO: THREATENED-FISHES-OF-INDIA.-PROCEEDINGS-OF-THE-NATIONAL-SEMINAR-ON-ENDANGERED-FISHES-OF-INDIA-HELD-AT-NATIONAL-BUREAU-OF-FISH-GENETIC-RESOURCES,-ALLAHABAD-ON-25-AND-26-APRIL,-1992. Dehadrai,-P.V.;Das,-P.;Verma,-S.R.-eds. MUZAFFARNAGAR-INDIA NATURE-CONSERVATORS 1994 pp. 271-295 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: With intensification of fishing in the inshore regions of the Indian Seas for increasing marine fish production through several innovations, a number of fisheries resources have come to be exploited at optimum levels. The demand for fish and fish products both for internal consumption and for export, has been the main reason for this situation. Among finfishes, the whale shark Rhiniodon typus of Gujarat, the catfishes of the genus Tachysurus off Karnataka and the whitefish Lactarius lactarius along the south-west coast of India have been reduced in abundance. The once existing fisheries for "Dara" Polynemus indicus, P. heptadactylus, "Karkara" Pomadasys hasta, "Koth" Otolithoides brunneus, "Ghol" Protonibea diacanthus, "Wam" Congresox talabanoides, Muraenesox cinereus, all of the Gujarat - Maharashtra coast and for Platycephalus maculipinna along the south-east and south-west coasts have become nonexistant at present. The other marine animals which are causing concern because of habitat damage or declining populations are the corals in the Gulf of Manner, Palk Bay, Gulf of Kutch and the Lakshadweep and Andaman-Nicobar Island systems; the gorgonids in the Gulf of Manner, the molluscan top shells Trochus and Turbo in Andaman-Nicobar Islands; the sacred chank and the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata along the south-east coast; the spiny lobsters Panulirus spp. off southeast and southwest coasts and the deep sea lobsters off southeast coasts and southwest coasts; the robber crab Birqus latro in Andaman Islands; the sea cucumbers in the Gulf of Manner, Palk Bay and the two island systems; the king crab Tachypleus gigas of the West Bengal - Orissa coasts; the sea turtles Chelonia, Eretmochelys, etc and the sea cow Dugong dugon in the Gulf of Manner and Palk Bay. The two marine ecosystems of coral reefs and the mangroves which harbour a wide variety of finfishes, crustaceans and molluscs of commercial value among different parts of the coast and the islands have reached a vulnerable stage. Besides, the ceaseless bottom trawling operations within about 50 m depth from the coast of as well as pollution of coastal waters in certain places have been damaging the habitats, thus leading to various ecological problems. Suggestions are offered for the conservation and rational exploitation of marine resources through stricter enforcement of existing laws, setting up of sancturies and reserves, diversification of fishing, declaration of closed seasons for fishing and extension education for coastal human population. AN: 3881033 41 of 395 TI: A report on rare and vulnerable ichthyofaunal elements from a South Indian estuarine mangrove ecosystem AU: Devaraj,-M.; Sundararaj,-V.; Prince-Jeyaseelan,-M.J. AF: Fish. Coll. Res. Inst., Tuticorin-628008, India CO: Natl. Semin. on Endangered Fishes of India Natl. Semin. on Endangered Fishes of India, Allahabad (India), 25-26 Apr 1992 SO: THREATENED-FISHES-OF-INDIA.-PROCEEDINGS-OF-THE-NATIONAL-SEMINAR-ON-ENDANGERED-FISHES-OF-INDIA-HELD-AT-NATIONAL-BUREAU-OF-FISH-GENETIC-RESOURCES,-ALLAHABAD-ON-25-AND-26-APRIL,-1992. Dehadrai,-P.V.;Das,-P.;Verma,-S.R.-eds. MUZAFFARNAGAR-INDIA NATURE-CONSERVATORS 1994 pp. 261-269 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: Intensive survey of ichthyofauna for over 4 years from a South Indian mangrove ecosystem revealed the occurrence of 197 typical brackishwater elements and a few freshwater species. Of these, 33 species were categorised as rare elements. They belong to the families Dasyatidae (1 sp.), Clupeidae (1 Sp), Dorosomidae (1 Sp), Ariidae (1 Sp), Syngnathidae (1 Sp), Scorpaenidae (3 Spp), Serranidae (3 Spp), Echeneidae (1 Sp), Lutjanidae (3 Spp), Lobotidae (1 Sp), Pomadasyidae (1 Sp), Sparidae (1 Sp), Blennidae (1 Sp), Callionymidae (1 Sp), Gobiidae (4 Spp), Periophthalmidae (1 Sp), Taenioididae (1 Sp), Trypauchenidae (1 Sp), Acanthuridae (1 Sp), Soleidae (2 Spp) and Cynoglossidae (1 Sp). Interestingly most of the rare species encountered were marine juveniles. Besides, one species belonging to the family Periophthalmidae (Periophthalmus koelreuteri (Pallas)) recorded just a decade ago is not available now in the South Indian mangroves. The reasons for the rare occurrence of certain selected species of ichthyofauna is the mangrove waterways are complex and diverse. A single factor or collective factors could be responsible for the rarity of individual species. Some of the factors discussed in the paper include the following: 1. Species richness in tropical regions makes certain species rare based on their poor genetic capability in the 'arena' of survival of the fittest. 2. Biotic control through predator-prey relationship and restricted feeding behaviour lead to rarity of certain species. 3. Zoogeography related factors such as restricted distribution, wider-distribution with preferential mass migration to certain selected localities and sporadic distribution to less conducive biotopes can also cause rarity of species in certain locations/open ecosystems. 4. Environmental variables in the dynamic brackishwater mangrove ecosystem and the capacity of individual species and size groups to tolerate/adjust to such fluctuating parameters lead to rarity of species. 5. Man made barriers and their adverse impact on the inherent behaviour and biological cycles of the species lead to rare occurrence of certain species. 6. Avoidance of certain small sized species to traditional gears and escaping mechanisms of certain other species by burrowing and hiding in the oyster reefs, prop roots of mangrove vegetation, algal mats etc. push certain species to 'rare' category besides biased sampling. 7. Unfavourable situations in breeding grounds of various species (including hydrobiological, climatological, biota related and anthropic factors) and the subsequent poor survival of the recruiting stock make the fish species rare in the natural systems. 8. Facultative utilization of mangrove waterways by certain marine juvenile fish species can cause rarity of species in the system. 9. Barriers and shelters (e.g., coral reefs) could make a nongregarious and nonparental care species sporadic in the mangrove ecosystem. 10. The demographic pressure, pollution by domestic wastes, indiscriminate over fishing, destructive fishing of undersized and felling of mangrove vegetation could affect the ecological stability and equilibrium of the fragile ecosystem and ultimately result in recruitment failure and rarity of species. AN: 3881032 42 of 395 TI: Threatened fishes of Sunderbans West Bengal AU: Pandit,-P.K.; Utpal,-B.; Chattergee,-J.G. AF: Cent. Inland Capture Fish. Res. Inst., Barrackpore-743101, India CO: Natl. Semin. on Endangered Fishes of India Natl. Semin. on Endangered Fishes of India, Allahabad (India), 25-26 Apr 1992 SO: THREATENED-FISHES-OF-INDIA.-PROCEEDINGS-OF-THE-NATIONAL-SEMINAR-ON-ENDANGERED-FISHES-OF-INDIA-HELD-AT-NATIONAL-BUREAU-OF-FISH-GENETIC-RESOURCES,-ALLAHABAD-ON-25-AND-26-APRIL,-1992. Dehadrai,-P.V.;Das,-P.;Verma,-S.R.-eds. MUZAFFARNAGAR-INDIA NATURE-CONSERVATORS 1994 pp. 253-259 LA: English AB: The Sunderbans with an area of 4,200 sq. km in West Bengal, India, possesses the unique mangrove ecosystem with a great biological diversity of flora and fauna. The huge organic detritus of the forest attracts a complex of faunal assemblage in search of food and shelter along with the ingress of tidal water. Commercial fishing at this area starts from August and continues up to late February every year. Though 92 fish species have been reported from this area, 25 fish species are listed as commercially important. Due to commissioning of Farakka Barrage in 1975 a great change has taken place in the faunal structure and abiotic features of the rivers. Based on personal interview, fish landing data and available records, a declining trend has been observed on the availability of some fish species. A list, thus prepared indicated 9 endangered, 8 vulnerable and 4 rare species from the area. AN: 3881031 43 of 395 TI: Impact of conversion of mangrove ecosystem for aquaculture purpose AU: Untawale,-A.G.; Wafar,-S. AF: NIO, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India CO: Semin. on Ocean and Industry -- Realities and Expectations, NIO, Dona Paula, Goa (India), 25-26 Oct 1994 SO: PROCEEDINGS-OF-SEMINAR-ON-OCEAN-AND-INDUSTRY-REALITIES-AND-EXPECTATIONS-HELD-ON-OCTOBER-25-AND-26,-1994-AT-NATIONAL-INSTITUTE-OF-OCEANOGRAPHY,-DONA-PAULA,-GOA. Srivastava,-P.S.-ed. NEW-DELHI-INDIA SOC.-OF-OCEAN-SCI.-AND-TECHNOL. 1994 pp. 89-92 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: Mangroves, one of the highly productive ecosystems are considered as nature's own aquaculture systems because species of marine fishes, molluscs and crustaceans use tham as nursery grounds. Thus the mangrove ecosystem sustains tremendous fishery resources. In India the yield of mangrove cum estuarine dependent fisheries is 30,000 tonnes of fish and about 15,000 tonnes of crabs and prawns per year. Crustaceans like Penaeus monodon, P. indicus and fishes like Etroplus sp., mullets, etc are common in Indian mangroves. Conversion of mangroves for coconut and paddy cultivation along with setting of fish ponds is an age old practice in coastal India and is called as 'filtration' or 'trapping'. The brackish water aquaculture covers an area of 45,000 hectare are produced. The species cultivated are mugil cephalus, Chanon-Chanos, Penaeus Monodon, P. indicus, Macrobrachium, etc. About 32.13% of this area is along west coast and the yield rate is about 500-600 kg/ha/yr. Some of the impacts of conversion of mangrove ecosystem for aquaculture purposes are discussed in the present paper. Finally, it is suggested to strictly implement some legislation, recently introduced by Ministry of Environment and Forest for the conservation of coastal zones such as mangroves. AN: 3880445 44 of 395 TI: Iridoid glycosides from Avicennia officinalis AU: Sharma,-M.; Garg,-H.S. AF: Medicinal Chemistry Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, India SO: INDIAN-J.-CHEM.-B-ORG.-MED. 1996 vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 459-462 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Isolation and structure elucidation of two new iridois, 8-O-cinnamoylmussaenosidic acid (1) and officinosidic acid [5-hydroxy-10-O-(p-methoxycinnamoyl) adoxosidic acid] (2) along with known iridoids loganin (3) and 10-O-(5-phenyl-2,4-pentadienoyl) geniposidic acid (4) and a dissacharide acteoside (5) as peracetates from the leaves of Avicennia officinalis Linn. is described. AN: 3880416 45 of 395 TI: IRS-1C applications for coastal zone management AU: Nayak,-S.; Chauhan,-P.; Chauhan,-H.B.; Bahuguna,-A.; Nath,-A.N. AF: Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad 380 053, India SO: CURR.-SCI. 1996 vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 614-618 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: IRS-1A and 1B data have been found to be useful in providing information on the extent and condition of coastal habitats, coastal processes and water quality of coastal waters. These inputs formed major elements for preparing coastal zone management plans. IRS-1C data having improved spatial resolution (5.6 m PAN data), extended spectral range (inclusion of middle infra-red band in LISS-III) and increased repetitivity (5 days for WiFS data) have opened up new vistas of applications in the coastal zone. Preliminary analysis of IRS-1C data indicates that coral reef zonation, identification of tree and shrub mangroves, seaweed/sea grass beds, improved delineation of coastal features such as fringe mangroves, mudflats, beach, dune vegetation, saline areas, etc. as well as better understanding of suspended sediment patterns are now possible. These additional information will certainly form vital remote-sensing-based input for preparing coastal zone management plans. AN: 3880415 46 of 395 TI: Statistical evaluation of plankton diversity in the mangrove ecosystems in Cochin area AU: Shajina,-I.; Balan,-K. AF: CMFRI, P.B. No. 1603, Ernakulam, Cochin 682 014, India SO: MARICULTURE-RESEARCH-UNDER-THE-POSTGRADUATE-PROGRAMME-IN-MARICULTURE.-PART-4 Rengarajan,-K.;Noble,-A.;Prathibha;Kripa,-V.;Sridhar,-N.;Zakhriah,-M.-eds. COCHIN-INDIA CMFRI 1993 vol. 55 pp. 122-129 ST: CMFRI-SPEC.-PUBL. vol. 55 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: Prime objectives of the present study is to focus on this pivotal problem of the richness of the mangrove system in respect of various groups of phytoplankton and zooplankton and how it varies in relation to hydrographic characteristics. This is accomplished by constructing what are called diversity indices and by studying their behaviour in relation to hydrographic parameters. Diversity indices are statistical tools for analysing ecological patterns and this help to understand, in a given community, how many species or groups are there and what are their relative abundance and how many are rare and how many are common. Diversity is composed of two components, the total number of species or groups and how the abundance of data are distributed among the species. The number of species in the community is often termed as 'species richness' by ecologists. The second component is species evenness on the equitable distribution of the species or gruops to the total population. Indices that attempt to combine both richness and evenness into a single value are refered as diversity indices. AN: 3880396 47 of 395 TI: Studies on the interstitial salinity and related environmental parameters of certain brackishwater prawn culture ecosystems AU: Sathyajith,-D.; Manickam,-P.E.S. AF: CMFRI, P.B. No. 1603, Ernakulam, Cochin 682 014, India SO: MARICULTURE-RESEARCH-UNDER-THE-POSTGRADUATE-PROGRAMME-IN-MARICULTURE.-PART-4 Rengarajan,-K.;Noble,-A.;Prathibha;Kripa,-V.;Sridhar,-N.;Zakhriah,-M.-eds. COCHIN-INDIA CMFRI 1993 vol. 55 pp. 115-121 ST: CMFRI-SPEC.-PUBL. vol. 55 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: The backwaters in Kerala form the nursery grounds of many of the commercially important species and they are cultured in mangroves, coconut groves, culture ponds, etc. The prawns are found to survive in these systems even when the salinity drops to almost freshwater ranges during the southwest monsoon. Hence it is quite possible that the substratum where most penaeids remain burried during the day, affords these prawn a comparatively better range of environmental condition particularly salinity that helps them to survive and grow. The present investigation aims at comparing the interstitial water of the substratum with the column water as regards the parameters - salinity, temperature, pH, nitrate and nitrite. Besides, growth studies were simultaneously conducted in 4 pens erected in the culture pond by growing the juveniles of Penaeus indicus in them. The aim of the growth studies was to study the effect of the hydrological parameters, particularly salinity of the column and interstitial water on its growth. AN: 3880395 48 of 395 TI: Eco-biological studies of mangrove Rhizophora species AU: Pretha,-P.M.; Rajagopalan,-M.S AF: CMFRI, P.B. No. 1603, Ernakulam, Cochin 682 014, India SO: MARICULTURE-RESEARCH-UNDER-THE-POSTGRADUATE-PROGRAMME-IN-MARICULTURE.-PART-4 Rengarajan,-K.;Noble,-A.;Prathibha;Kripa,-V.;Sridhar,-N.;Zakhriah,-M.-eds. COCHIN-INDIA CMFRI 1993 vol. 55 pp. 42-48 ST: CMFRI-SPEC.-PUBL. vol. 55 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: The mangrove ecosystem in the Cochin estuarine system found to be formative and the dominant vegetation constituted by the species of Acanthus, Avicennia, Clerodendrom and Rhizophora. Mangrove areas contribute significantly to fish production by (1) sustaining a fishery (2) as a suitable site for culture and (3) by providing breeding and nursery ground for many finfishes and shellfishes. With this view, the present work attempts to understand the various factors both ecological and biological which control a Rhizophora dominated community in the Cochin area. AN: 3880386 49 of 395 TI: Studies on a mangrove habitat dominated by Bruguiera spp. AU: Jose,-J; Rajagopalan,-M.S AF: CMFRI, P.B. No. 1603, Ernakulam, Cochin 682 014, India SO: MARICULTURE-RESEARCH-UNDER-THE-POSTGRADUATE-PROGRAMME-IN-MARICULTURE.-PART-3 Rengarajan,-K.;Noble,-A.;Prathibha;Kripa,-V.;Sridhar,-N.;Zakhriah,-M.-eds. COCHIN-INDIA CMFRI 1993 vol. 54 pp. 78-84 ST: CMFRI-SPEC.-PUBL. vol. 54 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: Mangrove areas serve as an ideal nursery ground for a number of species of finfishes and shellfishes and often protect the coastal area from sea and soil erosion. The occurrence of the mangrove Bruguiera in the Cochin estuarine system was noticed only recently. The present investiations on morphological characters, distribution pattern, tree density, phenology, germination and growth of seedlings and other ecological parameters such as physico-chemical properties of the soil and tidal water in the area were undertaken with the objective of understanding various ecological aspects of the habitats dominated by the above species. The rate of accumulation of mangrove litter and its decomposition, occurrence of juveniles of many species of prawns and fishes were also taken into account. AN: 3880358 50 of 395 TI: Studies on the biotoxicity of the mangrove vegetation on the fingerlings of Liza macrolepis, Tilapia mossambica and Chanos chanos AU: Madhu,-K.; Rao,-D.S. AF: CMFRI, P.B. No. 1603, Ernakulam, Cochin 682 014, India SO: MARICULTURE-RESEARCH-UNDER-THE-POSTGRADUATE-PROGRAMME-IN-MARICULTURE.-PART-3 Rengarajan,-K.;Noble,-A.;Prathibha;Kripa,-V.;Sridhar,-N.;Zakhriah,-M.-eds. COCHIN-INDIA CMFRI 1993 vol. 54 pp. 61-63 ST: CMFRI-SPEC.-PUBL. vol. 54 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: The mangrove ecosystem with its complex canals, plants, pneumatophores and aerial roots provide food and shelter to a number of juvenile fishes. But, so far no scientific work has been carried out on the toxicity of mangrove vegetation on the aquatic organisms which inhabit these regions. The present work has been taken up to study the biotoxicity of mangrove plants on the fish fingerlings of Liza macrolepis, Tilapia mossambica and Chanos chanos. AN: 3880354 51 of 395 TI: Colonization of the mangrove Acanthus ilicifolius the sea accreted regions near Cochin AU: Muralidharan,-C.M.; Rajagopalan,-M.S. AF: CMFRI, Ernakulam, Cochin 682 014, India SO: MARICULTURE-RESEARCH-UNDER-THE-POSTGRADUATE-PROGRAMME-IN-MARICULTURE.-PART-2 Rengarajan,-K.;Noble,-A.;Prathibha;Kripa,-V.;Sridhar,-N.;Zakhriah,-M.-eds. COCHIN-INDIA CMFRI 1993 vol. 53 pp. 39-47 ST: CMFRI-SPEC.-PUBL. vol. 53 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: Mangroves are characteristic coastal vegetation and the community of tree and shrub along with faunal communities drawn from the adjoining estuaries and terrestrial system, form distinct specialised ecosystem. Apart from wood, timber and other produce of forest, the mangroves has been much valued as shore protectors, desalination agents, their high productivity and transport of organic food to other systems and capacity to recycle organic matter. From the fisheries point of view mangrove creeks and swamps form important nursery grounds for fishes and prawns. In the Cochin mangrove system Acanthus ilicifolius forms the predominant vegetation and have colonised traditional aquaculture fields and areas potentially suitable for such practices. Realising this importance and significance to coastal aquaculture, a study was undertaken especially to understand the different factors responsible for the colonisation, differential distribution, etc. of A. ilicifolius in the sea accreted areas of Vypeen Island. A study on the germination requirement of the species too is attempted. AN: 3880282 52 of 395 TI: Studies on rhizosphere microflora of Acanthus ilicifolius AU: Raman,-M.; Chandrika,-V. AF: CMFRI, Ernakulam, Cochin 682 014 SO: MARICULTURE-RESEARCH-UNDER-THE-POSTGRADUATE-PROGRAMME-IN-MARICULTURE.-PART-2 Rengarajan,-K.;Noble,-A.;Prathibha;Kripa,-V.;Sridhar,-N.;Zakhriah,-M.-eds. COCHIN-INDIA CMFRI 1993 vol. 53 pp. 100-102 ST: CMFRI-SPEC.-PUBL. vol. 53 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: The rhizosphere which occupies an important niche in the mangrove ecosystem, consists mainly of the mangrove plant root surfaces and the surrounding soil. They harbour a number of beneficial micro-organisms which enhance the productivity of the area. The mangrove plant Acanthus ilicifolius found abundantly in the swampy area along Cochin Coast was studied to estimate quantitatively and qualitatively the microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere and their role in enhancing productivity. AN: 3880254 53 of 395 TI: Evaluation of the nutritive value of mangrove leaves as a feed component for juveniles of Penaeus indicus AU: Thomas,-S.A.; Raj,-R.P. AF: CMFRI, Ernakulam, Cochin 682 014 SO: MARICULTURE-RESEARCH-UNDER-THE-POSTGRADUATE-PROGRAMME-IN-MARICULTURE.-PART-2 Rengarajan,-K.;Noble,-A.;Prathibha;Kripa,-V.;Sridhar,-N.;Zakhriah,-M.-eds. COCHIN-INDIA CMFRI 1993 vol. 53 pp. 87-95 ST: CMFRI-SPEC.-PUBL. vol. 53 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Feed forms the major operational input and greatly influences the running expenditure of prawn culture operations. Therefore, formulation and supply of nutritionally adequate practical feeds, either complete or supplementary, become essential for the success of prawn culture. A number of compounded feeds have been developed for juveniles of Indian penaeid prawns with a variety of conventional feed ingredients. However, with the growth and expansion of aquaculture industry in India, shortage of these conventional feed ingredients can be expected as most of these ingredients are already being used extensively for the formulation of feeds for animal husbandry. Keeping this in view, research has been intensified at the Centre of Advanced Studies in Mariculture, CMFRI, Cochin to develop practical feed formulation using cheap nonconventional feed ingredients for extensive prawn culture. AN: 3880252 54 of 395 TI: Observations of the germination and growth of Avicennia officinalis Linnaeus AU: Meenakshy,-N.C.; Rajagopalan,-M.S. AF: CMFRI, Ernakulam, Cochin 682 014 SO: MARICULTURE-RESEARCH-UNDER-THE-POSTGRADUATE-PROGRAMME-IN-MARICULTURE.-PART-2 Rengarajan,-K.;Noble,-A.;Prathibha;Kripa,-V.;Sridhar,-N.;Zakhriah,-M.-eds. COCHIN-INDIA CMFRI 1993 vol. 53 pp. 80-83 ST: CMFRI-SPEC.-PUBL. vol. 53 LA: English AB: The present study was carried out on Avicennia officinalis the most dominant mangrove plant in this region. Investigations were made in the present work on the growth of Avicennia in nature, the influence of salinity and tidal inundations on germination in situ and under laboratory conditions, and the biochemical changes associated with germination and early growth. AN: 3880250 55 of 395 TI: Studies on heterotrophic bacteria in the mangrove ecosystem near Cochin AU: Surendran,-V.; Chandrika,-V. AF: CMFRI, Ernakulam, Cochin 682 014 SO: MARICULTURE-RESEARCH-UNDER-THE-POSTGRADUATE-PROGRAMME-IN-MARICULTURE.-PART-2 Rengarajan,-K.;Noble,-A.;Prathibha;Kripa,-V.;Sridhar,-N. COCHIN-INDIA CMFRI 1993 vol. 53 pp. 66-71 ST: CMFRI-SPEC.-PUBL. vol. 53 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: The investigations are aimed at the quantitative estimation of bacterial populations, and the isolation and identification of bacteria from mangrove areas. Investigations are also made in the seasonal variations of some of the physicochemical parameters along with bacterial population and statistically analysed to know how far the environmental factors influence the distribution of heterotrophic bacteria in this biotope. AN: 3880247 56 of 395 TI: Evolutionary history of the coastal quaternaries of the Bengal Plain, India AU: Chakrabarti,-P. AF: Government of West Bengal, Calcutta, India SO: PROC.-INDIAN-NATL.-SCI.-ACAD.-A-PHYS.-SCI. 1995 vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 343-354 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: The Bengal Plain, is characterised by the presence of an extensive coastal tract bordered by the Bay of Bengal in the south. Two contrasting coastal environments are prevailing in the area, namely: (i) the macrotidal Hooghly Estuary in the east; and (ii) the mesotidal Midnapore Coastal plain to the west. A morphogenetic study based on the terrain mapping unit (TMU) concept reveals the form-process-material interactions of these two contrasting coastal environments with a possible geo-history model of the coastal Quaternaries. It has been established that the entire process-response system of the coastal tract of the Bengal plain started operating after the rise of sea level around 6000yrs B.P. (i.e., optimum of Flandrain trangression). In the Midnapore coastal plain, the development of successive rows of dunes with intervening clayey tidal flats, is due to the punctuations in the regression of the sea during the Holocene times. Whereas, in the Hooghly Estuary, the mangrove vegetation plays a significant role as the dominant geomorphic agent in the evolution of the tidal shoals and their eventual accretion to the main landmass resulting in delta progradation. In the present-day scenario, the Hooghly Estuary becomes the abandoned part of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta in India, and is also turning destructive. An erosional regime is also prevailing in the western part of the Midnapore coastal plain. AN: 3880222 57 of 395 TI: Marine fungi from India - 6 AU: Borse,-B.D. AF: Dep. Bot., Arts, Commerce Sci. Coll., Erandol-425 109, India SO: INDIAN-BOT.-REP. 1987 vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 108-110 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: In the course of a marine mycological survey of the Maharashtra coast (the Arabian Sea), some interesting fungi were collected on intertidal wood, submerged prop roots, seedlings, and pneumatophores of mangroves. After a critical study these were found to be rare and some are not previously recorded from the Arabian Sea (Kohlmeyer, 1984; Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer: 1979). Halosarpheia marina, H. retorquens and Leptosphaeria australiensis which being reported for the first time from India, are described in this paper. All the specimens have been deposited in the Herbarium of the Department of Botany, University of Poona, Pune-411 007, India. (DBO) AN: 3877701 58 of 395 TI: Marine fungi from india - 7 AU: Borse,-B.D. AF: Dep. Bot., Arts, Commerce Sci., Coll., Erandol 425 109, India SO: INDIAN-BOT.-REP. 1987 vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 62-64 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: The present paper deals with seven marine Ascomycetes collected along the coast of the state of Maharashtra (the Arabian Sea). Ceriosporopsis cambrensis Wilson is reported for the first time from India. Ceriosporopsis halima Linder, Lignincola longirostris (Cribb and Cribb) Kohlmeyer, Lulworthia medusa (Ellis and Everh.) Cribb and Cribb, Savorvella lignicola Jones and Eaton Torpedospora radiata Meyers are reported for the first te from the coast of Maharashtra State. Avicennia alba Blume is ing reported as a new host substrate for Lignincola laevis Hohnk and Lulworthia medusa. (DBO) AN: 3877700 59 of 395 TI: Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar, East Africa) as a nursery ground for penaeid prawns AU: Subramaniam,-S.P. AF: 61, 6th Cross, Cambridge Layout, Bangalore-560008, India CO: 1. Symp. on the Interaction of Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, Nairobi (Kenya), 1985 SO: COMPARATIVE-ECOLOGY-OF-FRESHWATER-AND-COASTAL-MARINE-ECOSYSTEMS. Kilham,-P.;Mavuti,-K.M.-eds. 1990 vol. 208, no. 1-2 pp. 111-122 ST: HYDROBIOLOGIA vol. 208, no. 1-2 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: The penaeid prawns are recruited in the sheltered sandy beaches and mangrove areas of Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar) at post-larval stage (7 mm). Year round incursions with a maximum during the warmer months of December to March were observed. February to March is considered as the peak recruitment period. Out of six species of penaeids represented in the area, Penaeus latisulcatus (75%) and Penaeus indicus (15%) were dominant. The recruitment pattern indicated greatest incursions of post-larvae with the flood spring tides of the night when the tidal flow is strong. The juvenile population of P. latisulcatus is distributed in those intertidal sandflats with a rich growth of seagrass and P. indicus in the muddy areas of mangrove forests. P. indicus showed affinity for euryhaline conditions, whereas P. latisulcatus showed no preference for lower salinity. Provision of food and shelter are considered as important factors for their nursery dependence. P. latisulcatus attained a size of 60-70 mm in five to six months and P indicus 110-120 mm in six to eight months during their nursery phase. These juvenile penaeids were found to be omnivorous, feeding on animal products, plant material and detritus. The maturing P. latisulcatus emigrate back to the sea when they are about 65 mm, whereas P. indicus move out at about 120 mm. A positive correlation between post-larval recruitment and juvenile abundance was observed. (DBO) AN: 3877685 60 of 395 TI: Thraustochytrid and fungal component of marine detritus. 3. Field studies on decomposition of leaves of the mangrove Rhizophora apiculata AU: Raghukumar,-S.; Sathe-Pathak,-V.; Sharma,-S.; Raghukumar,-C. AF: Biol. Oceanogr. Div., Natl. Inst. Oceanogr., Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India SO: AQUAT.-MICROB.-ECOL. 1995 vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 117-125 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: The sequence of colonisation, densities and biomass of fungi, thraustochytrid protists and bacteria during decomposition of leaves of the mangrove Rhizophora apiculata Blume, as well as the accompanying biochemical changes of the detritus, were studied in 2 litterbag experiments at Goa, India. Three phases were observed. (1) Thraustochytrids and the fungi Cladosporium herbarum and Halophytophthora vesicula colonised detritus during the first week, characterised by a rapid loss of detrital dry weight and a reduction in proteins, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, phenolics and cellulose. (2) Decline of most of the organic constituents in detritus to almost the lowest observed levels within 21 d was accompanied by an increase in fungal and bacterial biomass. Fungi and bacteria together contributed maxima of 0.052 and 0.065% to dry weight of 21 and 35 d detritus respectively. Protein values never increased with decomposition and microbial biomass buildup, although C:N values declined. (3) Total fungal and bacterial biomass decreased after 3 and 5 wk, respectively. However, thraustochytrids and marine fungal species such as Cirrenalia basiminuta and 'Hyphomycete XVII' attained high densities by 56 to 60 d. Most of the species present initially in the detritus were observed even in the last stages of decomposition examined (56 to 60 d). Thraustochytrids and fungi were isolated both from surface-sterilized and untreated detritus, suggesting epi- and endobiontic modes of life. Distinct sequences of fungal and thraustochytrid colonisation, presence of high fungal biomass relative to bacterial biomass, the high densities of thraustochytrids and accompanying biochemical changes indicate the importance of these organisms in the mangrove detrital processes. AN: 3876841 61 of 395 TI: Isolation and characterization of melanin from a marine fungus AU: Ravishankar,-J.P.; Muruganandam,-V.; Suryanarayanan,-T.S.* AF: P.G. and Res. Dep. Botany, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Coll., Madras 600 004, India SO: BOT.-MAR. 1995 vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 413-416 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: An alkali extraction procedure yielded a dark brown pigment from the vegetative hyphae of the mangrove fungus, Cirrenalia pygmea. This pigment responded positively for all the diagnostic tests for melanin. The absorption spectrum of the pigment showed a strong absorption in the UV region with no absorption peaks in the visible region of the spectrum. A plot of log absorbance versus wavelength gave a linear curve with negative slope. The IR spectrum showed characteristic absorption bands. When tricyclazole, a specific inhibitor of dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) type of melanin was incorporated in the growth medium, the fungus produced light coloured hyphae which were highly susceptible to osmotic shock. It appears that melanization of hyphae may afford protection to some marine fungi against sudden changes in osmotic pressure. AN: 3873539 62 of 395 TI: Inventory and classification of wetlands in India AU: Gopal,-B.; Sah,-M. AF: Sch. Environ. Sci., Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi 110067, India CO: 4. International Wetlands Conference, Symposium on Classification and Inventory of the World's Wetlands, Colombus, OH (USA), 13-18 Sep 1992 SO: VEGETATIO 1995 vol. 118, no. 1-2, pp. 39-48 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish); F (Freshwater) AB: The Indian subcontinent has a large variety of freshwater, saline and marine wetlands. Whereas the mangroves are relatively well documented, very little is known about the other wetlands, with few exceptions. Only recently an inventory of these wetlands has been prepared but no effort has been made to classify them. A vast majority of the inland wetlands are temporary and/or man-made, and they have been traditionally used and managed by the local human populations. In this paper, first, we evaluate the classification schemes of the IUCN, US Fish and Wildlife Services and those of the Australian wetlands, for their applicability to Indian wetlands. Then, we propose a simple hierarchical classification of wetlands based on their location (coastal or inland), salinity (saline or freshwater) physiognomy (herbaceous or woody), duration of flooding (permanent or seasonal) and the growth forms of the dominant vegetation. We stress upon the hydrological factors which determine all the structural and functional characteristics of the wetlands. We consider that the various growth forms of wetland vegetation integrate the totality of hydrological variables and therefore, can be used as the indicators of different hydrological regimes. AN: 3847069 63 of 395 TI: Toxic effect of mangrove plant (Excoecaria agallocha L.) latex on the larvae of fresh water prawn Macrobrachium lamarrei lamarrei AU: Krishnamoorthy,-P.; Maruthanayagam,-C.; Subramanian,-P. AF: Dep. Anim. Sci., Sch. Life Sci., Bharathidasan Univ., Tiruchirapalli 620024, India SO: ENVIRON.-ECOL. 1995 vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 708-710 LA: English ER: F (Freshwater) AB: The mangrove plant Excoecaria agallocha L. (family Euphorbiaocae) was found to toxic to many young ones of aquatic organisms. When newly hatched (within 24 hours) larvae of fresh water prawn Macrobrachium lamarrei lamarrei were exposed to 0.0001 to 1.0 ppm, centpercent mortality was observed at 0.1 to 1.0 ppm within 2 hours; at 0.01 to 0.09 ppm in 4 hours; at 0.001 to 0.009 ppm within 8 hours; at 0.0001 to 0.0009 ppm within 24 hours; 50% mortality occurred at 0.0004 ppm. During depuration period total mortality was observed within 2 and 6 hours respectively at 1.0 to 0.1 ppm and 0.09 to 0.0001 ppm; and at 0.009 to 0.0007 ppm exposed larvae died within 20 hours. There is no mortality upto 48 hours at 0.0006 to 0.0001 ppm exposures. AN: 3834471 64 of 395 TI: Water conditions and nutrient content at the artificial reef sites in Ranong Province, Thailand AU: Limpsaichol,-P.; Khokiattiwong,-S.; Bussarawit,-N. AF: Phuket Mar. Biol. Cent., Phuket, Thailand SO: THE-EFFECT-OF-ARTIFICIAL-REEF-INSTALLATION-ON-THE-BIOSOCIOECONOMICS-OF-SMALL-SCALE-FISHERIES-IN-RANONG-PROVINCE,-THAILAND. Bay-of-Bengal-Programme-for-Fisheries-Development,-Madras-India.-Small-Scale-Fisherfolk-Communities-in-the-Bay-of-Bengal pp. 11-15 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: A brief account is given of the findings of studies conducted in order to quantify and assess environmental parameters at various artificial reef sites in Ranong Province, Thailand. Two of the reef modules are located very close to mangrove and estuarine areas, and are therefore prone to high turbidity. This could play a negative role on the sealife dwelling near them. The third module is dominated by seawater intrusion and thus has more marine conditions, relatively clear water and less suspended solids. The results thus indicate that the conditions of the first 2 modules do not favour colonization and aggregation of various organisms of commercial value, although nutritional enrichment of the water was evident. The third reef module appears to have environmental conditions that were more favourable for the objectives of the artificial reefs. The presence of artificial reefs does not seem to affect the natural environmental conditions in any significant way. AN: 3819458 65 of 395 TI: Status of marine environment in India AU: Subramanian,-B.R. AF: DOD, New Delhi, India SO: TRAINING-PROGRAMME-IN-MODELLING-AND-MONITORING-OF-COASTAL-MARINE-POLLUTION-MAMCOMP,-NOVEMBER-21-DECEMBER-16,-1994.-LECTURE-NOTES. Sinha,-P.C.;Swamy,-G.N.;Murthy,-C.R.-eds. NEW-DELHI-INDIA INDIAN-INST.-OF-TECHNOL. 1994 pp. 63-89 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: This paper highlights the status of marine environment in India, with reference to hydrography, coastal ecosystems, mangroves, coral reefs, environmental problems like disposal of domestic sewage, industrial wastes. Besides prominent sources of coastal marine pollution are discussed and programme for monitoring the pollution is presented. AN: 3815044 66 of 395 TI: Laboratory reared larval stages of a mangrove crab Sesarma edwardsi de Man 1887 (Decapoda:Grapsidae) AU: Kannupandi,-T.; Pasupathi,-K. AF: Annamalai Univ., Parangipettai 608 502, India SO: MAHASAGAR 1994 vol. 27, pp. 105-115 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: The larval development of Sesarma edwardsi includes 4 zoeal and a magalopal stages under laboratory conditions. Morphological features of larval and postlarval stages of S. edwardsi are described and figured. Comparisons with other known species of this genus are made and a key for the identification of the first zoea of the known species is also provided. AN: 3814932 67 of 395 TI: Bacterial flora in mangroves of Andaman. Part 1: Isolation, identification and antibiogram studies AU: Shome,-R.; Shome,-B.R.; Mandal,-A.B.; Bandopadhyay,-A.K. AF: Cent Agric. Res. Inst., P.B. No. 181, Port Blair 744 101, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India SO: INDIAN-J.-MAR.-SCI. 1995 vol. 24, pp. 97-98 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Bacterial flora of mangrove litter fall and underneath sediments from South Andaman was investigated. Thirtyeight bacterial isolates were obtained from Rhizophora, Avicennia and Nypa species inhabited areas. The cultural, morphological and biochemical features revealed that most of the isolates belong to Bacillus spp (50%). In addition Aeromonas, Vibrio, Escherichia, Enterobacter, Corynaebacterium, Kurthia, Staphyllococcus, Micrococcus, and Listeria were also present. Most isolates were gram positive (76.3%), motile (87%) and fementative bacteria ranged from 6.9% for dulcitol to 82.1% for dextrose. Thirty percent isolates were pigment producer (either diffusible or cell associated). The bacterial isolates showed a minimum of 50% resistance against chloramphenicol and a maximum of 100% resistance against polymixin B. AN: 3814921 68 of 395 TI: Texture of Tellicherry mangrove sediments, southwest coast of India AU: Raghunadh,-K.; Sushadevi,-K.P.; Sajan,-K. AF: Cochin Univ. Sci. and Technol., Cochin 682 016, India SO: INDIAN-J.-MAR.-SCI. 1995 vol. 24, pp. 91-93 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: Textural studies of Tellicherry mangrove sediment indicate that, silty sand is the major textural class in the allochthonous sediments, followed by muddy sand, sandy mud and mud. The textural characteristics with their interrelationship in scatterplots indicate the prevalence of a high energy zone adjacent to the river mouth. Buffer mangroves, river discharge and the tidal influx within the system are responsible for the sediment distribution pattern in the mangrove ecosystem of Tellicherry. AN: 3814919 69 of 395 TI: Macrobenthos in the mangrove ecosystem of Cochin backwaters, Kerala (southwest coast of India) AU: Sunilkumar,-R. AF: Cochin Univ. Sci. and Technol., Sch. Mar. Sci., India SO: INDIAN-J.-MAR.-SCI. 1995 vol. 24, pp. 56-61 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: Structure, composition and seasonal distribution of macrobenthic fauna in the intertidal areas of the mangrove ecosystem of Cochin backwaters were studied. Benthic fauna was mainly represented by Polychaeta, Crustacea and Mollusca. Faunal diversity was higher at st. 1 near Cochin barmouth than at interior 2 stations. Species diversity and richness varied from 0.52 to 3.03 and 0.38 to 4.50, respectively. Evenness varied from 0.43 to 1.03. Maximum macrofaunal density and dry weight recorded were 8970 m super(-2) and 57.86 g.m super(-2) respectively. Polychaetes constituted the bulk of fauna in the 3 stations studied. Significant similarity and strong association were noticed among macrobenthos. Detritivorous benthos were found to be common at all stations and well adapted to mangrove habitat. AN: 3814912 70 of 395 TI: Vegetation analysis of restored and natural mangrove forest in Sagar Island, Sundarbans, east coast of India AU: Saha,-S.; Choudhury,-A. AF: Univ. Calcutta, 35, B.C. Road, Calcutta 700 019, India SO: INDIAN-J.-MAR.-SCI. 1995 vol. 24, pp. 133-136 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Ecological conditions were similar in the restored and natural mangrove forests, though they differed in age and elevation. The restored forest experienced total diurnal inundation, but the natural forest was not fully inundated. Thus the former was dominated by Avicennia alba, A. marina and Porteresia coarctata, while the latter was dominated by Excoecaria agallocha, Ceriops decandra, Acanthus ilicifolius and Derris trifoliata. Similarity and diversity for tree and shrub layers were low and the dominance-diversity curves approached geometric series. AN: 3814901 71 of 395 TI: Studies on anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. from the tropical mangrove environment AU: Vethanayagam,-R.R.; Krishnamurthy,-K. AF: Annamalai Univ., Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu, India SO: INDIAN-J.-MAR.-SCI. 1995 vol. 24, pp. 19-23 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Studies on the growth potential of the anoxygenic photosynthetic purple nonsulphur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. collected from the mudflats of the Pichavaram mangroves (India) showed that this strain grew well in salinities normally encountered in the marine environment. Experiments were also conducted to determine the effect of environmental factors on the growth and bacteriochlorophyll-a synthesis of this species. This strain showed the maximum growth in 30 x 10 super(-3) of salinity. The bacteriochlorophyll-a synthesis was maximum at the salinity 20 x 10 super(-3). The pH 7.5 was found optimum for bacteriochlorophyll-a synthesis and growth. This strain could grow in sodium sulphide concentrations between 0.02 and 0.1% (w/v) (optimum at the concentration of 0.08% (w/v)). Besides these, 0.15% (w/v) amonium chloride concentration also enhanced the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll-a. The growth was inhibited when ammonium chloride exceeded 0.15% (w/v) concentration. It was also observed that this bacterium used various carbon and nitrogen compounds for its growth. AN: 3814886 72 of 395 TI: Radiocarbon dates of sediment cores from inner continental shelf off Taingapatnam, southwest coast of India AU: Nambiar,-A.R.; Rajagopalan,-G. AF: Geol. Surv. India, Marine Wing, Mangalore 575 003, India SO: CURR.-SCI. 1995 vol. 68, pp. 1133-1137 LA: English AB: Radiocarbon dating of carbonized wood samples from three sediment cores from the inner continental shelf off Taingapatnam, in the southwestern coast of India, indicates ages in the bracket 8400-9400 YBP. These radiometric ages correlate well with the ages of carbonized wood from inner continental shelf off Ponnani (Kerala) and Karwar (Karnataka). The occurrence of carbonized wood in widely spread offshore areas probably represents a regional transgressive event in the west coast which resulted in submergence and destruction of coastal mangroves. The rate of sedimentation in the study area varies between 0.12 and 0.37 mm/yr, much lower than those reported from shelf areas north of Mangalore. The slow accumulation of sediments in the southern parts of the western continental shelf of India, as exemplified from the present study, may be due to very poor discharge and low bed load sediments of the west-flowing small rivers of this part of the peninsula and low concentration of suspended particulate matter in them. AN: 3814848 73 of 395 TI: Processes which control the distribution of radium and uranium in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta and their fluxes to the Bay of Bengal AU: Carroll,-J. CA: South Carolina Univ., Columbia (USA) SO: DISS.-ABST.-INT.-PT.-B-SCI.-and-ENG. 1991 vol. 51, no. 8, 158 pp NT: Diss. Ph.D.: Order No.: DA9101446. LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: The distribution of uranium and radium isotopes between sediments and seawater was investigated in two major areas of the Ganges-Brahmaputra (G-B) estuarine mixing zone. To the east of the main river channel is a shallow area (<7m)(2.5 x 10 super(3) km super(2)) containing several large islands and numerous small ephemeral islands which appear and disappear with tides and storms. To the west of the main river channel is a large mangrove forest (2.8 x 10 super(4) km super(2)). In January 1987, freshwater and sediment discharge were low (fw = 7600 m super(3)/s and sed = 5.4 x 10 super(9) kg/month). Mixing profiles show that radium was released from sediments to seawater. Radium activities in the mixing zone were greater than river and ocean endmember activities by 30-50 dpm/100L for super(226)Ra and 50-100 dpm/100L for super(228)Ra. These excess activities were supplied from suspended riverine sediment and sediments in the mangrove forest exposed to seawater for the first time, and by erosion of island sediments in the eastern delta. Additional super(228)Ra was supplied from nearshore bottom sediments during resuspension by tidal and wave action. Increased river discharge caused the mixing zone to migrate offshore from coastal sediment deposits. Desorption of super(226)Ra from suspended sediments discharged by the Rivers increased super(226)Ra activities in the 0-10ppt region of the mixing zone. In October 1987, dissolved super(226)Ra activities were a factor of 3-5 lower than in January as a result of lower water residence times and limited salt water exposure of nearshore sediment deposits. For the G-B mixing zone, sediment supplies from the Rivers and salt water migration into the western and eastern delta determine dissolved radium fluxes to the Bay of Bengal. The flux of super(226)Ra = 8 to 11 x 10 super(14) dpm/yr and the flux of super(228)Ra = 12 to 16 x 10 super(14) dpm/yr. These fluxes are not significantly different from flux estimates determined by the annual sediment discharge multiplied by radium which desorbed from river sediment and island sediment exposed to seawater for the first time. A mixing profile of uranium and salinity during low discharge in January 1987 shows uranium activities in waters <12ppt salinity are 20% lower than the predicted activity based on conservative mixing of river and ocean waters. These observations imply dissolved uranium is removed to sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta. Tides and lower river discharge in the Delta prolong the association of nearshore sediments and low salinity water. Possible explanations for removal of uranium include removal of uranium to suspended sediments and adsorption of uranium to organic-rich sediments in the mangrove forest. (DBO) AN: 3808038 74 of 395 TI: Distribution of mangrove plants in relation to the chemical characteristics of the soil, Muthupet, Tamil Nadu, India AU: Gunasekaran,-S.; Jayapaul,-A.; Raju,-P.M. AF: Dep. Zool., Univ. Madras Guindy Campus, Madras-600 025, India SO: ASIAN-ENVIRON. 1992 vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 59-69 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: Mangrove forests are abundant on both the east and west coasts of Indian Peninsula. A detailed study on the hydrobiocoenology of the mangrove ecosystem of Muthupet (Kaveri river basin) Tamil Nadu, India, was undertaken. The present paper outlines the results of investigation on the distribution of mangrove plants in the Muthupet mangrove in relation to the chemical characteristics of the soil with reference to a few important trace metals. An attempt has also been made to measure some of the ecological parameters used in species zonation. The range of electrical conductivity of the estuarine soil ranged from 1.65 to 7.10 (m. mhos/cm) and the pH of soil ranged from 6.3 to 8.08. The concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the forest and in the mud flat has also been analyzed. A distinct zonation pattern, in the mangrove community, has been linked with the variation in edaphic factors, which are usually associated with the degree of tidal influence. AN: 3799865 75 of 395 TI: Species composition and abundance of tintinnids and copepods in the Pichavaram mangroves (south India). OT: Composicion de especies y abundancia de tintinidos y copepodos en los manglares de Pichavaram (sud de la India) AU: Godhantaraman,-N. AF: Cent. Adv. Stud. Mar. Biol., Annamalai Univ., Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu, India SO: CIENC.-MAR. 1994 vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 371-391 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: The annual pattern of distribution and abundance of tintinnids and copepods-taking them as the representatives of the major components of microzooplankton (20 to 200 mu m) and mesozooplankton (200 mu m to 2 mm), respectively-was studied at the Pichavaram mangroves (India). Monthly samplings were made from January to December 1989, covering three stations. For tintinnids, density varied from 60 to 44,990 org./m super(3). Agglomerated tintinnids were the dominant form. The maximum abundance (80,740 org./m super(3)) of copepods was recorded in the freshwater and neritic water mixing zone (station 2) during summer and the lowest (80 org./m super(3)) in the freshwater zone (station 1). The genera Acartia and Acrocalanus (belonging to the suborder Calanoida), Macrosetella and Euterpina (belonging to the Harpacticoida), and Oithona (belonging to the Cyclopoida) were coincident with the maximum species abundance at station 2. Species like Acartia southwellii and Oithona brevicornis were observed during the lower abundance period. Calanoid and harpacticoid copepods were also dominant at station 3. A significant positive relationship between the abundance of tintinnids and copepods was observed. The seasonal distribution and abundance of tintinnids and copepods are discussed in relation to hydrographical parameters. AN: 3788295 76 of 395 TI: Influence of tannins, sugars and amino acids on bacterial load of marine halophytes AU: Kathiresan,-K.; Ravikumar,-S. AF: Cent. Adv. Stud. Mar. Biol., Annamalai Univ., Parangipettai 608502, India SO: ENVIRON.-ECOL. 1995 vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 94-96 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: Bacterial population on leaves of nine intertidal plants was studied along with the leakiness of tannins, sugars and amino acids from leaf tissues. Bacterial densities were higher on fresh leaves than that on leaf litter and were associated with higher leakiness of amino acids and sugars, and lower leakiness of tannins. AN: 3777204 77 of 395 TI: Meiofaunal stratification in relation to microbial food in a tropical mangrove mud flat AU: Ansari,-Z.A.; Sreepada,-R.A.; Matondkar,-S.G.P.; Parulekar,-A.H. AF: Natl. Inst. Oceanogr., Dona Paula, Goa-403 004, India SO: TROP.-ECOL. 1993 vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 204-216 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: The vertical gradients of meiofauna mainly in relation to biochemical changes and microbial abundance in the upper 20 cm of deposit of a mangrove mud flat were studied. Strong vertical gradients in the redox potential (Eh), interstitial water and sedimentary organic compounds were recorded. Microbial and phytobenthos also showed clear vertical gradients and a significant number of bacteria were encountered in the 15-20 cm depth. Abundance of meiofauna followed distinct vertical gradient and the number decreased significantly with increasing depth in the sediment. The reducing environment was characterised by high population of nematodes, turbellarians and harpacticoids. Meiofaunal taxa were significantly correlated with Eh and interstitial water of the sediment. Among the meiofaunal food, organic matter, ATP phytobenthic abundance and bacterial counts were positively correlated with meiofaunal density. Biochemical constituents did not yield any significant correlation with meiofauna. Food availability played a supporting role while physical environmental parameters were more important in meiofaunal dispersion in mangrove mud flats. AN: 3774794 78 of 395 TI: Studies on root growth in seedlings of a tropical mangrove tree species AU: Kathiresan,-K.; Moorthy,-P.; Ravikumar,-S. AF: Cent. Adv. Study Mar. Biol., Annamalai Univ., Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu, India SO: INT.-TREE-CROPS-J. 1995 vol. 8, no. 2-3, pp. 183-187 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: The influence of propagule length, plantation depth, soil type and irrigants on root growth of Rhizophora spp. was studied. Propagule lengths of 25-30 cm for R. apiculata and 25-40 cm for R. mucronata planted to a depth of one third of their length in a siltyclay substratum irrigated with 15 g/l sea water for R. mucronata and fresh water for R. apiculata showed better rooting and establishment of mangrove seedlings in nursery conditions. AN: 3772093 79 of 395 TI: Biodiversity of the mangrove ecosystem of Sundarbans AU: Chakrabarti,-K. AF: Res. Working Plan Circle, Calcutta, West Bengal, India SO: INDIAN-FOR. 1993 vol. 119, no. 11, pp. 891-898 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: Observations on the plant animal relations and adaptations of different forms of living organisms of the mangrove swamps are presented. Principal forest formations inhabited by Sundarbans tigers have been described with vegetation types. Ecological dynamics of the plant-animal complex indicate strict protection of the habitat. The mangrove zone situated below the tide level was observed to be comparatively rich in generic and specific diversity over other zones which are frequently inundated. Salinity and tidal fluctuations in the mangrove swamps are the critical factors that regulate the physical and chemical environment of the entire biota. All other biotic and abiotic factors that exert considerable force on the environment have also been identified. Habitat formations like pure Cereops Excaecaria-Cereops which record high soil salinity also exhibit significantly higher human casualties from tiger. Soil salinity has been correlated with human casualties from tiger in different habitat formations types. AN: 3772074 80 of 395 TI: Seasonal abundance and distribution of seeds of mud crab Scylla serrata in Pichavaram mangrove, Southeast India AU: Chandrasekaran,-V.S.; Natarajan,-R. AF: Coll. Fish., G.B. Pant Univ. Agric. and Technol., Pantnagar 263145, Nainital Distr., Uttar Pradesh, India SO: J.-AQUACULT.-TROP. 1994 vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 343-350 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: Seasonal abundance and distribution of juveniles of Scylla serrata were studied in Pichavaram mangrove from April 1981 to March 1982. Peak abundance during post-monsoon (January to February) and total absence during monsoon (October to November) were the notable features of juvenile seasonality. The population of juveniles was higher in the seagrass and algal bed areas of the mangrove. Crabs of 20-30 mm carapace width dominated the population in the shallow intertidal zone of the mangrove. AN: 3764866 81 of 395 TI: Vegetative propagation through air-layering in two species of mangroves AU: Kathiresan,-K.; Ravikumar,-S. AF: Cent. Adv. Stud. Mar. Biol., Annamalai Univ., Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu 608 503, India SO: AQUAT.-BOT. 1995 vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 107-110 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: The possibility of vegetative propagation through air-layering has been suggested for two mangrove species, Sonneratia apetala B. Ham. and Xylocarpus granatum Koen. Air-layering, a technique of inducing rooting in shoot branches of plants, was followed by 13 hormonal treatments during July and October 1993, January and April 1994. Rooting was observed only during monsoon and post-monsoon months in the shoot branches treated with hormones. The twigs were cut-off after root formation, planted and were found to establish themselves in the soil. AN: 3762464 82 of 395 TI: Dynamics of the Godavari Estuary -- impact on resources management AU: Rao,-V.R. AF: Dep. Meteorol. and Oceanogr., Andhra Univ., Visakhapatnam - 530 003, India CO: Coastal Zone Canada '94, Cooperation in the Coastal Zone, Halifax, NS (Canada), 20-23 Sep 1994 SO: COASTAL-ZONE-CANADA-'-94,-'-COOPERATION-IN-THE-COASTAL-ZONE'-:-CONFERENCE-PROCEEDINGS.-VOLUME-5.#ZONE-COTIERE-CANADA-'-94,-"COOPERATION-DANS-LA-ZONE-COTIERE":-ACTES-DE-LA-CONFERENCE.-VOLUME-5. Wells,-P.G.;Ricketts,-P.J.-eds. no. 1994, pp. 1894-1901 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: Godavari Estuary is flanked by natural resources and industries like mangrove forest, shrimp and prawn culture, salt and marine chemicals, agricultural lands, oil and natural gas wells, fisherman villages, etc. These resources are under threat due to constant changes in its topography. Dynamic aspects like course changes, salinity intrusion, tidal propagation, circulation and mixing, flushing and pollution, sedimentation, etc., have been studied in the estuary based on the field collection of data over a period of one year. Distribution of various dynamical parameters and their role on management of the estuarine resources have been discussed. AN: 3760065 83 of 395 TI: Laccase and other lignocellulose modifying enzymes of marine fungi isolated from the coast of India AU: Raghukumar,-C.; Raghukumar,-S.; Chinnaraj,-A.; Chandramohan,-D.; D'-Souza,-T.M.; Reddy,-C.A.* AF: Dep. Microbiol., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824-1101, USA SO: BOT.-MAR. 1994 vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 515-523 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Several genera of marine fungi isolated from the coast of India from decaying mangroves and seagrass were tested for the presence of laccase, one of the major lignin modifying enzymes present in many genera of wood-rotting fungi. Varying levels of laccase activity were present in most of the fungi included in this study. The laccase plate assay was found to be much less reliable than the spectrophotometric laccase using the extracellular culture fluid of the fungal cultures grown in liquid media. Several factors including type of growth medium, growth medium pH, and assay pH had marked effects on laccase activity. A few strains produced high levels of laccase in both malt extract (ME) medium and low N medium; however, a majority of the strains produced laccase in low N medium (pH 4.5) but not in the ME medium. When grown in low N medium at pH 4.5, twelve of the strains showed acidic laccase (pH 4.5) activity; of these, seven also showed alkaline laccase (pH 8.2) activity. One of the strains exhibited laccase activity only when grown in the low N medium at pH 8.2. Lignin peroxidase (LIP) was not present in any of the strains tested, but three of the strains showed manganese-dependent peroxidase (MNP) activity. Xylanase and cellulase activities were observed in a majority of the fungi studied. The results indicate that laccase is widely distributed in fungi found on decaying lignocellulosic materials in the marine environment and that a number of these fungi also contain other lignocellulose modifying enzymes, except LIPs and MNPs which appear to be relatively less common in these marine fungi. AN: 3748419 84 of 395 TI: Rhizophora annamalai: A new species of mangroves AU: Kathiresan,-K. AF: Cent. Adv. Stud. Mar. Biol., Annamalai Univ. Parangipettai 60852, India SO: ENVIRON.-ECOL. 1995 vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 240-241 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: A new species of mangroves Rhizophora annamalai has been recorded and described in this paper. AN: 3742689 85 of 395 TI: Preliminary studies on the polychaete fauna of the mangrove areas of Cochin AU: Sanilkumar,-R.; Antony,-A. AF: Cochin Univ. Sci. and Technol., Sch. Mar. Sci., India SO: PROCEEDINGS-OF-THE-SIXTH-KERALA-SCIENCE-CONGRESS,-27-29-JANUARY-1994,-THIRUVANANTHAPURAM Ravikumar,-R. KERALA-INDIA STATE-COMM.-ON-SCI.,-TECHNOL.-AND-ENVIRON. 1994 pp. 74-77 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Polychaete annelids were studied based on bottom collections from three localities in the mangrove areas of Cochin during 1990-'91. The species composition, distribution and seasonal variation of the polychaete fauna are given. Thirty three species of polychaetes belonging to 20 genera under 10 families have been identified. Marphysa gravelyi, Paraheteromastus tenuis, Nereis glandicincta, Dendronereides heteropoda and D. aestuarina are found to be the most dominant species in the mangrove swamps of Cochin. The effect of salinity on the occurrence and abundance of polychaetes in the area is given. AN: 3732804 86 of 395 TI: Inhibitation of tidal salt marshes by the estuarine wood-boring isopod Sphaeroma terebrans in Florida AU: Estevez,-E.D. AF: Mote Mar. Lab., Sarasota, FL, USA SO: RECENT-DEVELOPMENTS-IN-BIOFOULING-CONTROL Thompson,-M.F.;Nagabhushanam,-R.;Sarojini,-R.;Fingerman,-M.-eds. NEW-DELHI-INDIA OXFORD-AND-IBH 1994 pp. 97-105 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: The boring isopod Sphaeroma terebrans inhibits mangroves and has been discovered in salt marshes near the northern limits of mangroves in the Gulf of Mexico. Borers occupy rhizomes as well as living and dead stems of Juncus roemerianus and other marsh species. More borers occupy exposed rhizomes than stems. Borers also inhibit peat. Borer population structure in a Juncus marsh is similar to that prop roots of nearby mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Borer abundance in a receding marsh is significantly greater than in stable or accreting marshes. Borers may cause or exploit marsh recession, may be important regulators of marsh area and shape, and may also affect competition between marshes and mangroves where these wetlands overlap. AN: 3732749 87 of 395 TI: Sea anemone, Acontiactis gokhaleae as biofouler in the mangrove mudflats along Thane Creek AU: Mishra,-V.; Quadros,-G.; Ullal,-V.; Gokhale,-K.S.; Athalye,-R.P. AF: B.N. Bandodkar Coll. Sci., Thane 400 601, India SO: MAHASAGAR 1994 vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 73-78 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: The macrobenthic study of mangrove mudflats along shallow region of Thana creek revealed dominance of the sea anemone, Acontiactis gokhaleae at HLWM of Vitawa station near geomorphic head of the creek. This station is also characterized by lower population density of polychaetes suggesting a predator-prey relationship. The abundance of sea anemones has been correlated with currents, salinity and sediment organic carbon but does not show any substrate specificity. Low sediment N/P ratios indicate domestic sewage pollution even though C/N ratios were lower due to less concentration of humic acid. Hence they can be treated as indicator of biofouling. AN: 3732733 88 of 395 TI: Remote sensing and its applications in fisheries AU: Kingston,-S.D.; Manikandavelu,-D. AF: Tamil Nadu Vet. Anim. Sci. Univ., Tuticorin 628 008, India SO: SEAFOOD-EXPORT-J. 1995 vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 29-31 LA: English AB: The remote sensing technique has vast potential in scanning the marine resources. If this is used it is possible to augment the production through culture and capture fisheries. It can help in identifying potential fishing zone and locating fishing grounds. Besides the conservation of marine resources, coastal area development, monitoring of ocean systems, regulation of degrading mangrove forests, avoidance of overexploitation of coral reefs, etc., can also be done using this technique. AN: 3732715 89 of 395 TI: New record of mangrove clam Geloina erosa (Solander, 1786) from the west coast of India AU: Ingole,-B.S.; Kumari,-L.K.; Ansari,-Z.A.; Parulekar,-A.H. AF: NIO, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India SO: J.-BOMBAY-NAT.-HIST.-SOC. 1994 vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 338-339 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: A mangrove clam Geloina erosa was collected from Chorao, a deltaic island in the attachment of Mandovi Estuary, Goa, India. This is the new record from west coast of India. AN: 3732702 90 of 395 TI: Effect of salinity on larval survival and development of the mangrove crab Metaplax elegans AU: Balagurunathan,-R.; Kannupandi,-T. AF: Annamalai Univ., Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu, India SO: J.-MAR.-BIOL.-ASSOC.-INDIA 1993 vol. 35, no. 1-2, pp. 193-197 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Larvae of Metaplax elegans were reared in the laboratory from hatching to first crab stage, to study the influence of salinity at different concentrations from 10 ppt to 35 ppt. First zoea did not survive beyond 2hr at salinity 10 ppt. Complete development occurred in salinities from 15 ppt to 35 ppt. The survival rates in 25, 30, 35, 20 and 15 ppt salinities were 60%, 15%, 1%, 38% and 14% respectively. The intermoult duration of zoeal stages increased, when the salinity increased or decreased beyond 25 ppt. High survival and short developmental period was observed in 25 ppt indicating the optimum salinity for the larvae of M. elegans. AN: 3732670 91 of 395 TI: Mullet seed resources of Pichavaram mangrove, southeast coast of India AU: Chandrasekaran,-V.S.; Natarajan,-R. AF: C.A.S. in Mar. Biol., Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu, India CO: Symp. on Tropical Marine Living Resources, Cochin (India), 12-16 Jan 1988 SO: J.-MAR.-BIOL.-ASSOC.-INDIA 1993 vol. 35, no. 1-2, pp. 167-174 LA: English AB: Observations on the abundance and distribution of juveniles of mullets Mugil cephalus and Liza spp. were made for a period of two years from April 1980 to March 1982. By using velon screen drag net and cast net 1934 seeds were collected. Seeds of M. cephalus constituted 33.66% and Liza spp. 66.34%. Availability of seeds were found to be round the year with peaks of abundance during late monsoon, early postmonsoon and summer seasons. Salinity and water temperature were found to influence the temporal variations of seeds. A note on the potential mullet seed resources and scope for brackishwater mullet culture in this region is appended. AN: 3732667 92 of 395 TI: Cultivable prawn and fish seed resources of Cochin Barmouth area AU: Mathew,-P.M.; Jose,-M.M.; Mrithunjayan,-P.S.; Jose,-S. AF: Kerala Agric. Univ., Panangad, Cochin 682 506, India CO: Symp. on Tropical Marine Living Resources, Cochin (India), 12-16 Jan 1988 SO: J.-MAR.-BIOL.-ASSOC.-INDIA 1993 vol. 35, no. 1-2, pp. 87-94 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Availability of cultivable prawn and fish seed in Cochin Barmouth area was assessed from June 1981 to April 1983 and it was found that postlarvae of Metapenaeus dobsoni, M. monoceros and Penaeus indicus were available almost throughout the year, with the peak during March-September. The maximum number observed was 5,25,024/net/hour in August 1981. M. dobsoni (50.80%), P. indicus (34.40%), M. monoceros (13.50%) and P. monodon (1.30%) were the constituent prawn species. P. indicus postlarvae were available in the catch in all months except December 1981, March-August showing the peak. P. monodon was present in limited quantities during the period February-June, the maximum number recorded being 13.248/net/hour in June 1982. The metapenaeids also showed the maximum numbers during the period March-September. Liza parsia was the only fish species found in any significant quantity, with a maximum number of 4,860/net/hour in November 1981. Fry and fingerlings of Chanos chanos and Mugil cephalus were found in appreciable numbers in the shallow inudated areas of the mangrove swamps, along with large numbers of Liza parsia. AN: 3732656 93 of 395 TI: Littoral meiofauna of Bhitarkanika mangroves of River Mahanadi system, east coast of India AU: Sarma,-A.L.N.; Wilsanand,-V AF: Reg. Coll. Educ., Bhubaneswar 751 007, Orissa, India SO: INDIAN-J.-MAR.-SCI. 1994 vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 221-224 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Meiofaunal investigations of Bhitarkanika mangrove sediments revealed the presence of 11 major faunal taxa, of which nematodes were the dominant. Higher densities (no.l m/2) of meiofauna were observed in low water mark (143.68 cm/2) and mid water mark (119.2 cm/2) at 0-5 cm depth. A positive correlation between meiofaunal densities and median sorted sediments with high organic matter was observed. Harpacticoid copepod density (28.74 cm/2) was found to be 2 times higher than that reported for salt marsh. However, nematodes (108.78 cm/2) showed lower densities than those reported for other estuarine habitats. AN: 3732607 94 of 395 TI: Seedling performance of mangrove Rhizophora apiculata (Rhizophorales: Rhizophoraceae) in different environs AU: Kathiresan,-K.; Moorthy,-P.; Rajendran,-N. AF: Annamalai Univ., Parangipettai 608 502, India SO: INDIAN-J.-MAR.-SCI. 1994 vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 168-169 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: A comparative study was made on the seedling performance of Rhizophora apiculata grown in the open and intertidal estuarine areas adjoining with or without mangrove forest. The seedlings exhibited better growth performance in estuarine area rich in potassium. This finding was experimentally assessed. AN: 3732592 95 of 395 TI: Impact of environmental parameters on polychaetous annelids in the mangrove swamps of Cochin, south west coast of India AU: Kumar,-R.S.; Antony,-A. AF: Cochin Univ. Sci. and Technol., Cochin 682 016, India SO: INDIAN-J.-MAR.-SCI. 1994 vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 137-142 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Species composition, distribution and seasonal variation of polychaete fauna in the Cochin mangroves were evaluated. Effect of environmental parameters such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen. pH, sediment texture and organic matter on the distribution of polychaetes was studied. Thirty three species of polychaetes belonging to 20 genera under 10 families were identified. The errantia group were common than the sedentaria. Correlation was observed between polychaete fauna and salinity. Species diversity and richness was higher at st 1 (located near the Cochin barmouth) during premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons. AN: 3732585 96 of 395 TI: Karyotype diversity in three species of Heritiera, a common mangrove tree on the Orissa coast AU: Das,-A.B.; Basak,-U.C.; Das,-P.* AF: Mangrove Res. Cent., Reg. Plant Resour. Cent., Bhubaneswar 751 015, Orissa, India SO: CYTOBIOS 1994 vol. 80, no. 321, pp. 71-78 LA: English AB: Chromosome number and karyotype analysis of Heritiera fomes, H. macrophylla and H. littoralis from Bhitarkanika and Mahanadi delta, Orissa, revealed 2n = 38 chromosomes. Total chromosome length and metaphase chromosome volume varied from 57.68-74.26 mu m and 18.43-46.02 mu m super(3) in H. littoralis and H. fomes respectively. The total form percentage (TF%) values of a karyotype were statistically significant among the species. Detailed analysis of chromosome morphology revealed minute structural alterations in chromosomes with regard to chromosome length and chromosome volume and TF% which played an important role in the establishment and adaptability of such species. AN: 3729591 97 of 395 TI: Temporal distribution and abundance of shrimp postlarvae and juveniles in the mangroves of Muthupet, Tamilnadu, India AU: Mohan,-R.; Selvam,-V.; Azariah,-J. AF: Sultan Qaboos Univ., Dep. Fish. Sci. Technol., P.O. Box 34, Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman CO: Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mangrove Ecosystems, (Hong Kong), 1-3 Sep 1993 SO: PROCEEDINGS-OF-THE-ASIA-PACIFIC-SYMPOSIUM-ON-MANGROVE-ECOSYSTEMS. Wong,-Yuk-Shan;Tam,-N.F.Y.-eds. 1995 vol. 295, no. 1-3 pp. 183-191 ST: HYDROBIOLOGIA vol. 295, no. 1-3 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: The temporal distribution patterns of the predominantly occurring postlarvae and juvenile shrimps in the mangrove and associated habitats of Muthupet, India were investigated for two years from February 1984 to January 1986. Among the eight commercially important species recorded, Penaeus indicus H. Milne Edwards, P. merguiensis De Man, P. monodon Fabricus and Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers) were predominant. The postlarval recruitment size varied with species: P. indicus and P. merguiensis recruited at the size of 9-11 mm total length (TL), P. monodon at 12-14 mm TL and M. dobsoni at 4-6 mm TL. The species P. indicus, P. merguiensis and M. dobsoni were observed continuously throughout the study period with maximum abundance occurring from July to September in 1984-85 and from August through October in 1985-86. P. monodon occurred seasonally from November to January in both years. Postlarvae and juvenile catches were low during low salinity and high salinity periods and a higher density was observed in the months of moderate water salinity. Large numbers of P. indicus, P. merguiensis and M. dobsoni clearly showed the preference to the detritus rich muddy substrate, whereas P. monodon did not show any preference and was equally abundant over different substrate types. AN: 3719445 98 of 395 TI: Hormone-induced physiological responses of a tropical mangrove species AU: Kathiresan,-K.; Moorthy,-P. AF: Cent. Adv. Study Mar. Biol., Annamalai Univ., Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu 608502, India SO: BOT.-MAR. 1994 vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 139-141 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: The effects of Indole-3-acetic Acid (IAA) and Gibberellic acid (GA sub(3)) on seedling performance of Avicennia marina (Foersk.) Vierh. were studied. The GA sub(3) was found to enhance shoot growth by 26% and root growth by 40%, shoot dry weight by 145% at 50 mg/L. Indole-3-acetic acid also increased shoot dry weight by 139% and root length to 31% at 10 mg/L. The GA sub(3) was more effective than IAA in increasing the accumulation of protein, tissue nitrate, carotenoids, chlorophylls and their fractions in photosystems I and II and in the light harvesting complex. AN: 3711878 99 of 395 TI: The coastal zone of Orissa, [India] Bay of Bengal; threats and prospects for sustainable development AU: Rao,-M.V.L.; Mahapatra,-K.; Rao,-D.V.S. AF: Berhampur Univ., Berhampur, Orissa, India 760007 CO: Coastal Zone Canada '94, Cooperation in the Coastal Zone Halifax, NS (Canada) [1994] SO: COASTAL-ZONE-CANADA-'-94,-COOPERATION-IN-THE-COASTAL-ZONE:-CONFERENCE-PROCEEDINGS.-VOLUME-1.#ZONE-COTIERE-CANADA-'-94,-'-COOPERATION-DANS-LA-ZONE-COTIERE:-ACTES-DE-LA-CONFERENCE.-VOLUME-1. Wells,-P.G.;Ricketts,-P.J.-eds. DARTMOUTH,-NS-CANADA COASTAL-ZONE-CANADA-ASSOCIATION 1994 vol. 1, pp. 304-319 NT: Incl. 34 ref. LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: The 480 km long coastline of Orissa extending over a greater part of Northwest Bay of Bengal is essentially a depositional environment endowed with six major estuaries, a rich mangrove belt, Asia's largest brackishwater lagoon (Chilka Lake), extensive non-vegetated wetlands and beaches rich in heavy minerals. This area is prone to cyclones and floods. Their effects and the implications of expected sea level rise on this coast are described. In the last two decades there has been increasing pressure on this coastal zone for the development of fishery, aquaculture, ports and harbours, defence facilities and urban settlements. Some of the developmental activities have given rise to environmental and socio-economic problems which have become issues of public concern and protest. This paper presents case studies involving some critical resources and habitats which illustrate the range of human activities in the area and the threats and constraint affecting sustainable development of the coastal zone. AN: 3693001 100 of 395 TI: Tolerance limits of two pulmonate snails Cassidula nucleus and Melampus ceylonicus from Pitchavaram mangroves AU: Dious,-S.R.J.; Kasinathan,-R. AF: CAS in Mar. Biol., Annamalai Univ., Portonovo 680502, India SO: ENVIRON.-ECOL. 1994 vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 845-849 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: Tolerance as submergence coupled with salinity, temperature and desiccation experiments were conducted on Cassidula nucleus and Melampus ceylonicus in relation to their natural habitat. Both were highly active between 20 and 28 ppt salinity. Below and above these levels they showed different levels of decreased activities. Desiccation tolerance experiments confirmed that larger size group snails tolerate higher levels than smaller ones. The former was sensitive in the temperature range of 20-35 C and the latter of 20-38 C which are closely related to their natural environment. The limits lie close to the terrestrial habitat having the ability to withstand wide fluctuations in salinity, submergence, desiccation and temperature. AN: 3690842 101 of 395 TI: Odonata of the mangrove tidal forest of West Bengal, India AU: Mitra,-T.R. AF: Zool. Surv. India, "N" Block, New Alipur, Calcutta-700053, India SO: NOT.-ODONATOL. 1992 vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 141-143 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: This is the first report on dragonflies of the mangrove tidal forest of India, most of the 28 recorded spp. are common and widespread in the Indian lowlands. AN: 3675957 102 of 395 TI: Thraustochytrid and fungal component of marine detritus. 4. Laboratory studies on decomposition of leaves of the mangrove Rhizophora apiculata Blume AU: Raghukumar,-S.; Sharma,-S.; Raghukumar,-C.; Sathe-Pathak,-V.; Chandramohan,-D. AF: Biol. Oceangr. Div., Natl. Inst. Oceanogr., Dona Paula, Goa-403 004, India SO: J.-EXP.-MAR.-BIOL.-ECOL. 1994 vol. 183, no. 1, pp. 113-131 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: The role of thraustochytrid protists and fungi in detrital dynamics of leaves of the mangrove Rhizophora apiculata was investigated in the laboratory. Field detritus of different ages (0, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 46, 53 and 60 days) obtained from litter-bag experiments were inoculated individually with five fungi, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium moniliforme, Cirrenalia basiminuta, "Hyphomycete XVII" and Halophytophthora vesicula and one thraustochytrid, Schizochytrium mangrovei. Biochemical changes occurring after 1 wk in 8 ages of detritus were examined. The results suggested two phases of fungal dynamics, the first corresponding to decompositional stages of 0-21 and the second of 28-60 days. Detrital material of the first phase supported better growth of the fungi Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium moniliforme, Cirrenalia basiminuta and Halophytophthora vesicula. Cellulase production by all the test species, in general, was greatest on such detritus. Detritus of the second phase proved to be better for the growth of the fungus "Hyphomycete XVII" and production of xylanase by all test species. Pectic enzymes, amylase and protease were produced more or less uniformly in all ages of detritus. The thraustochytrid Schizochytrium mangrovei grew well on both phases of detritus. The test species utilised a wide variety of substrates as sole carbon sources but differed significantly in their capabilities to elaborate the various degradative enzymes in detritus. Fusarium moniliforme and Halophytophthora vesicula caused marked increases in detritus protein, while all the test species enhanced amino acid levels. Schizochytrium mangrovei enhanced carbohydrate and reducing sugar contents, while Fusarium moniliforme and Halophytophthora vesicula substantially decreased the levels of the former. Growth of Halophytophthora vesicula in detritus caused a decline of total phenolics. AN: 3644994 103 of 395 TI: Development of brackishwater prawn in Orissa--problems and prospects AU: Upadhyay,-A.S. AF: Mar. Prod. Export Dev. Auth., Cochin, Kerala, India CO: Natl. Seminar on Aquaculture Development in India -- Problems and Prospects, Trivandrum (India), 27-29 Nov 1990 SO: PROCEEDINGS-OF-THE-NATIONAL-SEMINAR-ON-AQUACULTURE-DEVELOPMENT-IN-INDIA-PROBLEMS-AND-PROSPECTS,-27-29-NOVEMBER-1990. Natarajan,-P.;Jayaprakas,-V.-eds. THIRUVANANTHAPURAM-INDIA KERALA-UNIV. 1993 pp. 41-52 LA: English ER: B (Brackish) AB: Nature has gifted Orissa, India, with a coastline of 480 km and Chilka, the biggest brackishwater lagoon in India. There are 8 major river systems, with brackishwater areas, mangrove swamps, mud flats, salt marshes and salt pans. The total brackishwater resources in the state have been estimated to be nearly 0.3 million hectares. Out of the nearly 32,000 ha potential area identified for brackishwater aquaculture, around 22,000 ha have been reported to be suitable for prawn farming. The hydro-meteorological condition, soil properties, brackishwater parameters, availability of good quality prawn seeds in wild and socio-economic factors, provide much scope for developing scientific prawn farming in Orissa. However, the pace of development of prawn farming in this state is rather slow. This is mainly because of unnecessary delay in allotment of suitable land for farming, non-availability of good quality prawn feed, lack of technical manpower and inaccessibility to the potential sites in remote areas due to poor infrastructure. AN: 3642141 104 of 395 TI: Status of terrestrial flora and fauna at four lagoon sites of Bombay coast AU: Ghosh,-T.K.; Patil,-M.M.; Thakur,-S.G. AF: Natl. Environ. Eng. Res. Inst., Nagpur 440020, India SO: ENVIRON.-ECOL. 1994 vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 387-392 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: Terrestrial flora and fauna of four aerated lagoon sites, namely Versova, Malad, Bhandup and Ghatkopar of Bombay coast were studied in 1990 prior to construction of lagoons. The sites represented six and 26 varieties of mangroves and avifauna respectively besides a large number of miscellaneous vegetations, invertebrates and vertebrates. Diversity, density, dominance and frequency of mangrove species revealed that Avicennia marina was most important species in these regions. However, density of Acanthus ilicifolius was higher at Versova. While considering vegetation cover, Ghatkopar emerged with highest score of cover abundance scale. AN: 3630635 105 of 395 TI: Forest structure and prawn seeds in Pichavaram mangroves AU: Kathiresan,-K.; Ramesh,-M.X.; Venkatesan,-V. AF: Cent. Adv. Stud. Mar. Biol., Annamalai Univ., Parangipettai 608502, India SO: ENVIRON.-ECOL. 1994 vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 465-468 LA: English ER: M (Marine); B (Brackish) AB: Vegetation characteristics of mangroves like canopy height, tree diameter, mean stand diameter, basal area, basal cover, relative density, relative dominance and stand density in 10 islets of the Pichavaram forest and prawn seed resources in the habitats were studied. The prawn seed resources in mangrove waters depend on the vegetation and its structural attributes like canopy height, tree diameter and basal area. AN: 3630624 106 of 395 TI: Antiviral activity of marine algae and mangroves AU: Padamakumar,-R.; Ayyakkannu,-K. AF: Dep. Aquat. Biol. and Fish., Univ. Kerala, Beach P.O. Trivandrum 695 007, India CO: 3. International Marine Biotechnology Conference, Tromsoe, Norway, 7-12 Aug 1994 SO: 3RD-INTERNATIONAL-MARINE-BIOTECHNOLOGY-CONFERENCE:-PROGRAM,-ABSTRACTS-AND-LIST-OF-PARTICIPANTS. International-Advisory-Comm.-of-the-Int.-Marine-Biotechnology-Conference-1994,-Tromsoe-Norway TROMSOE-NORWAY TROMSOE-UNIVERSITY 1994 p. 98 LA: English ER: M (Marine) AB: Extracts of 63 species of marine algae and 16 mangroves were screened for antiviral activity against TMV. Among the algae only 16 species (30.19%) exhibited antiviral activity which includes 4 Chlorophyceae (Caulerpa racemosa, C. sertularioides, Codium adherens, Halimeda macroloba 4 phaeophyceae (Dictyota bartayresiana, D. dichotoma Sargassum tenerrimum, Zonaria crenata), and 8 Rhodophyceae (Centroceras clavulatum, Ceramium sp., Gelidiella acerosa, Gracilaria corticata, Hypnea musciformis, Laurencia obtusa, Laurencia papillosa, Polysiphonia sp). Ten mangroves (62.5%), Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera cylindrica, Excoecaria agallocha, Rhizophora mucronata, R. lamarkii, Salicornia brachiata, Sesuvium portulacastum, Sueda maritima and S. monica. The present study reveals that only 37.68 of the marine plants contain antiviral principles, but the results of the total extracts (73) screened showed only 10.96% is effective for causing more than 50% inhibition on TMV. The red alga C. clavulatum and the seeds of the mangrove B. cylindrica and leaves of E. agallocha showed significant antiviral activity (>
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