1-1 Tien Shan–mountain-Middle Asian




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Central Asian Ecosystems

The legend to the map

Mountains’ ecosystems (within desert zone)

Nival and subnival ecosystems

1 High mountains with alpine-like relief with domination of nival and subnival ecosystems:

1-1 Tien Shan–mountain-Middle Asian with isolated plants and open aggregations of cryopetrophytes (Carex griffithii1, Lloydia serotina, Dichodon cerastoides, Gastrolychnis apetala, Chorispora macropoda, Astragalus nivalis, Oxytropis platonychia, Saussurea glacialis)
High-mountain ecosystems of cryophytic pulvinates (cushion plants)
2 Slopes and leveled surfaces in high mountains with domination of pulvinates (herbaceous, dwarf semishrubs, shrubs):

2-2 Pamir herbaceous (Oxytropis immersa, Potentilla pamirica, Draba altaica), dwarf semishrub (Ajania tibetica, Dracocephalum paulsenii) and shrub (Sibbaldia tetrandra) communities, locally in combination with cryophytic steppes and meadows

2-3 Kashgaria–Tien Shan herbaceous (Oxytropis chionobi, O. humifusa) and dwarf shrub (Thylaco­spermum caespitosum, Sibbaldia tetrandra) communities in combination with cryophytic meadows and steppes

2-7 Badakhshan herbaceous (Potentilla flabellata, Oxytropis savellanica) and dwarf shrub (Sibbaldia tetrandra, S. olgae) communities, locally with mountain xerophytes (species of gg. Cousinia, Acantholimon) in combination with cryophytic meadows and phryganoids

High-mountain ecosystems of cryophytic meadows



3 Slopes and leveled surfaces with domination of low herbaceous communities of Kobresia and grass–forb meadows in high mountains:

3-3 Kashgaria-Tien Shan communities of Kobresia (Kobresia humilis, Carex melanantha, Ptilagrostis mongholica, Leontopodium ochroleucum) in combination with cryophytic pulvinates and steppes

3-8 Alai–Turkestan communities of Kobresia (Kobresia stenocarpa, Festuca alaica, Potentilla flabellata, Cousinia pannosa) in combination with cryophytic phryganoids

3-11 Dzungaria–Tien Shan meadows of Kobresia, of Alchemilla and Kobresia–grass–forb (Alchemilla retropilosa, Polygonum songa­ri­cum, Leontopodium campestre, Festuca alatavica, Poa calliopsis, Kobresia humilis) communities in combination with cryophytic pulvinates

4 Steep slopes of high mountains with alpine-like grass–forb and forb–grass meadows in combination with cryophytic phryganoids:

4-6 Hissar–Darvaz grass–forb and forb–grass (Geranium saxatile, Lagotis korolkowii, Ligularia alpigena, Allium fedtschenkoanum, Festuca alaica, Puccinellia subspicata Erigeron cabulicus, Gagea jaeschkei, Cousinia franchetii, C. pannosa) meadows

4-8 Alai–Turkestan grass–forb (Geranium saxatile, Lagotis korolkowii, Ligularia alpigena, Allium fedtschenkoanum, Festuca alaica, Puccinellia subspicata, Nepeta kokanica, Oxytropis incanescens, Acantholimon alatavicum) meadows

4-9 West Tien Shan grass–forb and forb–grass (Poa alpina, Festuca rubra, F. kryloviana, Hordeum turkestanicum, Cobresia humilis, Alopecurus soongoricus, Carex melanantha, Pedicularis korolkowii, Dracocephalum nutans, Potentilla gelida, P. hololeuca, Lloidia serotina, Hordeum turkestanicum, Pyrethrum pyrethroides, Aster alpinus, Allium polyphyllum) meadows

5 Steep slopes of high mountains with alpine-like medium herb meadows and communities of prostrate juniper:

5-8 Alai–Turkestan sub alpine-like and medium herb meadows (Phlomis oreophila, Polygonum nitens, species of gg. Geranium, Allium, Trollius, Poa pratensis, Phleum phleoides, Dactylis glomerata, Allium atrosanguineum, A. semenovii, Rhodiola pamiroalaica), locally with prostrate juniper (Juniperus turkestanica) in combination with cryophytic phryganoids

5-9 West Tien Shan sub alpine-like and medium herb meadows (Alopecurus pratensis, Poa angustifolia, Elymus caninus, Geranium collinum, Galatella, potentilla, Hieracium echioides, Polygonum nitens, Polygonum coriarium, Polygonum hissaricum) in combination with thickets of prostrate juniper (Juniperus turkestanica)

5-11 Dzungaria– Tien Shan sub alpine-like and medium herb meadows (Alchemilla retropilosa, A. sibirica, Hedysarum neglectum, Trollius dschunga­ricus, Iris ruthenica), locally with juniper (Junipe­rus pseudosabina) and spruce (Picea schrenkiana) open woodlands

High-mountain ecosystems of prickly herbs and thorn dwarf shrubs



6 Slopes and tops of mountains with tragacanthes:

6-4 Kopet Dagh grass–prickly herb–thorn dwarf shrub (species of gg. Оnobrychis, Astracantha, Acantholimon blandum, Cousinia smirnovii, C. oreodoxa, Alopecurus textilis, Nepeta kopetdaghensis, Hyacinthella transcaspica, Stipa turcomanica, S. lessingiana) communities in combination with cryophytic meadows

7 Steep slopes with thorn dwarf shrub–grass–sagebrush vegetation:

7-3 Badakhshan with thorn dwarf shrub–grass–sagebrush (Artemisia leucotricha, Festuca musbelica, Poa relaxa, Acantholimon pamiricum, Eremogone griffithii, Cousinia rubi­gi­nosa) and grass–catnip (Nepeta pamirensis, Festuca coelestis, Ranunculus badachschanicus) communities in combination with cryophytic pulvinates

8 Steep slopes and leveled surfaces with prickly herb and thorn dwarf shrub–grass–sagebrush communities in combination with cryophytic meadows:

8-6 Hissar–Darvaz prickly herb (species of g. Cousinia, Eremogone griffithii, Festuca musbelica, Dichodon cerastoides), tall herb–grass–prickly herb (Cousinia stephanophora, C. verti­cil­laris, Сousinia pannosa, C. franchetii, Acantholimon alatavicum, Piptatherum ferganense, Festuca musbelica, Ferula kokanica, Prangos pabularia) and thorn dwarf shrub–grass–sagebrush (Artemisia persica, A. leucotricha, Festuca musbelica, Piptatherum alpestre, species of g. Acantholimon, Onobrychis echidna) communities

8-8 Alai–Turkestan prickly herb (Cousinia splendida, Eremogone griffithii, Festuca musbelica, Acantholimon tataricum, A. alatavicum) and thorn dwarf shrub–grass–sagebrush (Artemisia persica, A. leucotricha, Festuca musbelica, Piptatherum alpestre, species of g. Acantholimon, Onobrychis echidna) communities in combination with cryophytic meadows

8-9 West Tien Shan forb–grass–prickly herb (Сousinia bonvalotii, C. chrysantha, Acantholimon korolkowii, A. albertii) communities, locally with fragments of Оnobrychis echidna communities

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